Wetlands in Ganga Basin

The main stem of the river Ganga flows through the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal in India. Only the Sahebganj district of Jharkhand can be taken when main stem of Ganga River is considered. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India sponsoring National Wetland Inventory and Assessment (NWIA) project reported 103882 ha area under wetlands in Uttarakhand, 1242530 ha in Uttar Pradesh, 403209 ha in Bihar and 1107907 ha in West Bengal.

 

Wetlands in Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand is the source region of two important rivers of India, viz Ganga and Yamuna. This is mainly a hilly state with high altitude wetlands. Wetlands of this state are both spring fed as well as river fed. As per the National Wetland Atlas, the three districts Uttarakashi, Tehri Garhwal and Haridwar include a total of 461 wetlands with a cumulative area of 25185 ha. The wetlands include high altitude wetlands (3 nos.) river and streams and wetlands (< 2.25 ha) area. The river and stream contribute 85.69% area (ha). The district wise distribution is represented below:

Wetlands in District Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand)

 

Wetlands in District Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand)

 

Wetlands in District Haridwar (Uttarakhand)

 

Many wetlands in this state are considered as sacred. Important wetlands of this state are Arolital, Badhanital, Bhikaltal, Devtal, Hemkund, Roopkund, Sahstrabahu Lake, Ramganga reservoir, Nainital lake, Kedar tal, Nanak sagar, Tehri reservoir, Dhauliganga, and Tumaria reservoir. Biodiversity valuation of many wetlands is yet to be established. The details related to area assessment are given below:

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Uttarkashi

S No

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

High altitude wetland

3

12

0.14

2.

River/stream

12

8477

99.36

3.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

43

43

0.50

4.

Total

58

8532

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Tehri Garhwal

S No

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

River/stream

11

2909

69.71

2.

Reservoir/Barrages

1

1247

29.88

3.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

17

17

0.41

4.

Total

29

4173

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Haridwar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

4

18

0.14

2

River/stream

9

11859

95.02

3

Tanks/Ponds

18

90

0.72

4

Waterlogged

1

171

1.37

5

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

342

342

2.47

6

Total

374

12480

100.00

*District wise area information of wetlands in the Ganga River Basin

(Source: National Wetland Inventory and Assessment. National Wetland Atlas. MoEF, Govt. of India. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization

 

Geographical location of some important wetlands is also shown in Google earth as shown below:

 

Wetlands in Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state of India. Rivers and tributaries flowing through the state are Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghra, Rapti, Gandak, Ramganga, Gomti, Hindan, Chambal, Saryu, Sai, Kosi, Betwa, Belan, Dhasan, Tons, Son etc. Huge numbers of lakes, ponds, canals are present in the state. Majority of these wetlands are related to the rivers directly or indirectly. 17 districts of Uttar Pradesh fall in the Ganga River Basin directly. Those are Bijnor, Saharanpur, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Bulandshahar, Raebareli, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Fatehpur, Allahabad, Azamgarh, Ballia, Varanasi, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Mirzapur and Ghazipur.

 

The entire districts collectively have 25113 wetlands with cumulative area of 314775 ha. The river/ stream accounts for 181935 ha approximately 57.7% of the wetlands in Uttar Pradesh followed by 13.6% water logged areas and wetlands (< 2.25 ha). Distribution of wetlands as lakes/ ponds, ox-bow lakes/ cut off meanders, river and stream, reservoir/ barrages, tanks/ ponds and wetlands (< 2.25 ha) is given below:

 

Wetlands in District Bijnor (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Jyotiba Phule Nagar (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Bulandsahar (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Raebareli (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Farrukhabad (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Kannauj (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Kanpur Dehat (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Kanpur Nagar (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Fatehpur (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Azamgarh (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Ballia (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)

 

 

Wetlands in District Sant Ravidas Nagar (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Mirzapur (Uttar Pradesh)

 

Wetlands in District Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh)

 

The area estimate of the districts is given below:

Area Estimates of Wetlands of District Saharanpur

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

4

60

0.52

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

2

10

0.09

4.

Waterlogged

1

4

0.03

5.

River/stream

64

10440

90.49

6.

Tanks/Ponds

108

413

3.58

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

610

610

5.29

Total

789

11537

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Bijnor

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

21

118

0.66

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

16

243

1.36

3.

Riverine wetlands

16

962

5.38

4.

Waterlogged

40

654

3.66

5.

River/stream

64

12826

71.74

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

6

931

5.21

7.

Tanks/Ponds

186

786

4.40

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1359

1359

7.60

Total

1708

17879

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Jyotiba Phule Nagar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

8

52

0.47

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

12

111

1.01

3.

Riverine wetlands

5

140

1.27

4.

Waterlogged

29

422

3.83

5.

River/stream

33

9744

88.37

6.

Tanks/Ponds

30

132

1.20

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

425

425

3.85

Total

542

11026

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Bulandshahar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

37

674

7.33

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

3

49

0.53

3.

Riverine wetlands

2

11

0.12

4.

Waterlogged

134

2101

22.58

5.

River/stream

10

5009

54.49

6.

Tanks/Ponds

90

382

4.16

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

967

967

10.52

Total

1243

9193

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Raebareli

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

90

4428

11.49

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

136

5457

14.17

3.

Riverine wetlands

7

577

1.50

4.

Waterlogged

602

13227

34.33

5.

River/stream

35

11123

28.87

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

1

119

0.31

7.

Tanks/Ponds

133

1556

4.40

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

2053

2053

5.28

Total

3057

38540

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Farrukhabad

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

23

658

2.95

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

107

589

2.64

3.

Riverine wetlands

170

7073

31.70

4.

Waterlogged

98

1598

7.16

5.

River/stream

81

12078

54.14

6.

Tanks/Ponds

6

28

0.13

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

285

285

1.28

Total

770

22309

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Kannauj

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

32

1345

16.42

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

10

193

2.36

3.

Riverine wetlands

9

554

6.76

4.

Waterlogged

97

2195

26.80

5.

River/stream

65

3489

42.60

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

1

10

0.12

7.

Tanks/Ponds

10

36

4.44

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

368

368

4.49

Total

592

8190

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Kanpur Dehat

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

36

883

7.61

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

7

180

1.55

3.

Riverine wetlands

9

19

0.16

4.

Waterlogged

189

1502

21.57

5.

River/stream

58

5380

46.37

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

2

6

0.05

7.

Tanks/Ponds

160

781

6.73

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1852

1852

15.96

Total

2313

11603

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Kanpur Nagar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

17

124

0.84

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

5

94

0.64

3.

Riverine wetlands

11

120

0.81

4.

Waterlogged

89

1238

8.38

5.

River/stream

87

11152

75.50

6.

Tanks/Ponds

129

853

5.78

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1189

1189

8.05

Total

1527

14770

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Fatehpur

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

59

1125

5.51

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

5

192

0.94

3.

Riverine wetlands

2

266

1.30

4.

Waterlogged

274

3785

18.52

5.

River/stream

39

12691

62.10

6.

Tanks/Ponds

76

390

1.91

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1986

1986

9.72

Total

2441

20435

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Allahabad

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

22

1879

6.84

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

21

382

1.39

3.

Riverine wetlands

6

313

1.14

4.

Waterlogged

186

2814

10.24

5.

River/stream

39

18143

66.01

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

19

1270

4.62

7.

Tanks/Ponds

192

794

2.89

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1892

1892

6.88

Total

2377

27487

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Azamgarh

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

145

5800

22.77

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

34

1750

6.87

3.

Riverine wetlands

29

797

3.13

4.

Waterlogged

72

3716

14.59

5.

River/stream

69

9972

39.15

6.

Tanks/Ponds

5

31

0.12

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

3406

3406

13.37

Total

3760

25472

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Ballia

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

111

4747

14.81

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

27

1328

4.14

3.

Riverine wetlands

31

1636

5.11

4.

Waterlogged

43

1481

4.63

5.

River/stream

34

21405

66.79

6.

Tanks/Ponds

3

8

0.02

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1442

1442

4.50

Total

1691

32047

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Varanasi

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

8

224

3.00

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

1

135

1.81

3.

Riverine wetlands

3

18

0.24

4.

Waterlogged

20

689

9.22

5.

River/stream

17

5323

71.26

6.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1081

1081

14.47

Total

1130

7470

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Sant Ravidas Nagar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

8

347

16.02

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

1

-

-

3.

Riverine wetlands

1

10

0.17

4.

Waterlogged

30

938

16.26

5.

River/stream

75

3400

58.96

6.

Tanks/Ponds

2

59

1.02

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1013

1013

17.57

Total

1130

5767

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Mirzapur

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

 Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

4

31

0.10

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

5

234

0.77

3.

Waterlogged

153

1692

5.59

4.

River/stream

58

16193

53.46

5.

Reservoirs/Barrages

254

9960

32.88

6.

Tanks/Ponds

118

515

1.70

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

1666

1666

5.50

Total

2258

27487

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Ghazipur

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

75

1597

6.77

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

27

1588

6.73

3.

Riverine wetlands

13

478

2.03

4.

Waterlogged

120

3987

16.90

5.

River/stream

62

13567

57.53

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

1

5

0.02

7.

Tanks/Ponds

3

15

0.06

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

2344

2344

9.94

Total

2645

23581

100.00

*District wise area information of wetlands in the Ganga River Basin
(Source: National Wetland Inventory and Assessment. National Wetland Atlas. MoEF, Govt. of India. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization

 

A location map of Google earth for some important locations is shown below:

 

Wetlands in Bihar

The state of Bihar is divided into two unequal parts by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east. Wetlands in Bihar are locally known as chaurs, mauns and pats. In Bihar, the main stem of Ganga passes through 12 districts viz. Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Buxar, Katihar, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Munger, Patna, Purnia, Saran, Sheikhpura, and Vaishali. The total wetlands in all the district are 5183 which includes Lakes/ Ponds, Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders, Riverine wetlands, Waterlogged areas, River/stream, Tanks/Ponds and Wetland (<2.25 ha). The total area of all types in all districts cumulative is around 168758 ha. The largest component is in river and streams (138218 ha) approximately 81.9% followed by small wetlands <2.25 ha, lakes and ponds. A graphical representation is shown below:

 

Wetlands in District Purnia (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Katihar (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Saran (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Vaishali (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Begusarai (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Khagoria (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Bhagalpur (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Sheikhpura (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Patna (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Lakhisarai (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Buxar (Bihar)

 

Wetlands in District Munger (Bihar)

 

The area estimates district wise is depicted below:   

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Purnia

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

47

831

6.70

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

176

1404

11.32

3.

Riverine wetlands

6

22

0.18

4.

Waterlogged

141

1902

15.34

5.

River/stream

26

7564

61.00

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

2

102

0.82

7.

Tanks/Ponds

42

140

1.13

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

436

436

3.52

Total

876

12401

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Katihar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

128

3146

10.14

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

237

2768

8.39

3.

Riverine wetlands

35

451

1.45

4.

Waterlogged

186

2486

8.02

5.

River/stream

34

21255

68.54

6.

Tanks/Ponds

80

303

0.98

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

602

602

1.94

Total

1302

31011

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Saran

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

26

737

3.48

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

10

121

0.57

3.

Riverine wetlands

10

102

0.48

4.

Waterlogged

30

2801

13.23

5.

River/stream

27

16886

79.76

6.

Tanks/Ponds

10

93

0.44

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

430

430

2.03

Total

543

21170

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Vaishali

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of  Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

31

3095

18.05

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

6

184

1.05

3.

Riverine wetlands

5

46

0.27

4.

Waterlogged

62

2950

17.08

5.

River/stream

16

10594

61.78

6.

Tanks/Ponds

7

24

0.14

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

275

275

1.60

Total

402

17168

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Begusarai

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

23

3240

15.91

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

54

1177

5.78

3.

Riverine wetlands

16

242

1.19

4.

Waterlogged

15

347

1.70

5.

River/stream

21

15142

74.35

6.

Tanks/Ponds

22

101

0.50

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

116

116

0.57

Total

267

20365

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Khagoria

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of  Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

24

416

3.57

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

55

1264

10.85

3.

Riverine wetlands

42

509

4.37

4.

Waterlogged

31

1217

10.45

5.

River/stream

44

8084

69.42

6.

Tanks/Ponds

17

80

0.69

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

75

75

0.64

Total

288

11645

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Bhagalpur

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

16

558

2.31

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

63

1034

4.28

3.

Riverine wetlands

23

157

0.65

4.

Waterlogged

21

445

1.84

5.

River/stream

28

21446

88.73

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

1

5

0.02

7.

Tanks/Ponds

26

99

0.41

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

427

427

1.77

Total

605

24171

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Sheikhpura

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of

Wetlands

Total Area of  Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

2

19

6.42

2.

River/stream

2

2

0.68

3.

Tanks/Ponds

50

203

68.58

4

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

72

72

24.32

Total

126

296

100.00

 

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Patna

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

1

5

0.02

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

11

207

1.00

3.

Riverine wetlands

2

35

0.17

4.

Waterlogged

14

194

0.94

5.

River/stream

22

19986

96.65

6.

Tanks/Ponds

13

87

0.42

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

164

164

0.79

Total

227

20678

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Lakhisarai

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of  Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

1

8

0.19

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

3

21

0.50

3.

Riverine wetlands

4

32

0.77

4.

Waterlogged

2

42

1.01

5.

River/stream

11

3660

87.62

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

1

107

2.56

6.

Tanks/Ponds

49

184

4.41

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

123

123

2.94

Total

194

4177

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Buxar

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of  Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

2

705

18.97

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

5

396

10.65

3.

Waterlogged

1

4

0.11

4.

River/stream

6

2444

65.75

5.

Tanks/Ponds

8

32

0.86

6.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

136

136

3.66

Total

158

3717

100.00

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Munger 

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

3

22

0.18

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

1

3

0.03

3.

Riverine wetlands

19

194

1.62

4.

Waterlogged

1

4

0.03

5.

River/stream

13

11155

93.12

6.

Reservoirs/Barrages

3

352

2.94

7.

Tanks/Ponds

31

125

1.04

8.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

124

124

1.04

Total

195

11979

100.00

 

Geographical locations as shown in Google earth are shown below:

 

 

Wetlands in District Sahibganj in Jharkhand

Only the Sahibganj district of Jharkhand falls directly into the Ganga river basin. The district has 555 wetlands having the area of 16118 ha. Like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar rivers and streams constitute nearly 65% of the wetland area followed by lakes and ponds17.75% and wetlands <2.25 ha and riverine wetlands. The numerical relation of wetlands is represented below:

 

The area estimates are shown below:

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Sahibganj in Jharkhand

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

10

2861

17.75

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

15

73

0.45

3.

Riverine wetlands

14

1204

7.74

4.

River/stream

13

11378

70.59

5.

Reservoirs/Barrages

3

16

0.10

6.

Tanks/Ponds

18

104

0.65

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

482

482

2.99

Total

555

16118

100.00

*District wise area information of wetlands in the Ganga River Basin
(Source: National Wetland Inventory and Assessment. National Wetland Atlas. MoEF, Govt. of India. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization

 

Geographical locations as shown in Google earth are shown below:

 

Wetlands in West Bengal

The Ganga is the perennial river in the state of West Bengal. One branch of Ganga enters Bangladesh in the name of Padma and the other flows through the state in the names of Bhagirathi and Hooghly. In West Bengal, 7 district fall directly into the Ganga river basin. Wetlands up to Malda district (Farakka Barrage) are considered in this report. Malda district has 123 wetland aggregate area of 4608 ha. The river/ streams contribute the largest wetlands of 51.27% followed by lakes/ ponds 18.31% and wetlands <2.25 ha 17.63%. The wetlands types in Malda district are given below:

 

Wetlands in District Malda (West Bengal)

 

The area estimates of wetlands in Malda district are shown below:

Area Estimates of Wetlands in District Malda (West Bengal)

Sl. No.

Wetland Category

No. of Wetlands

Total Area of Wetland (ha)

% of Wetland Area

1.

Lakes/Ponds

123

4608

18.31

2.

Ox-bow lakes/cut off meanders

31

582

2.31

3.

Riverine wetlands

148

1527

6.07

4.

Waterlogged

63

544

2.16

5.

River/stream

32

12906

51.29

6.

Tanks/Ponds

105

558

2.22

7.

Wetland (<2.25 ha)

4437

162

17.63

Total

4939

20887

100.00

*District wise area information of wetlands in the Ganga River Basin
(Source: National Wetland Inventory and Assessment. National Wetland Atlas. MoEF, Govt. of India. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization

 

The geographical locations as shown in Google earth are shown below:

 

Conservation Issues of Some Wetlands of Ganga River Basin

Name of the Wetland

State

Conservation Issues

 Banganga wetland

Uttarakhand

 Agricultural encroachment

 Human settlement 

 Weed infestation

 Silt deposition

 Livestock grazing

 Jhilmil Jheel

Uttarakhand

 Livestock grazing

 Poaching

 Road kill

 Invasive plant species

 Encroachment

 Lakh Bahosi wildlife sanctuary

Uttar Pradesh

 Grazing

 Grass collection

 Hunting and Bird trapping

 Samaspur Bird Sanctuary

Uttar Pradesh

 Fishing

 Drainage

 Livestock grazing

 Siltation

 Pesticides

 Surha Taal Wildlife Sanctuary

Uttar Pradesh

 Excessive fishing

 Irrigation

 Weed infestation

 Over exploitation

 Gogabil Pakshi Vihar, Bhagar Beel and Baldia

 Chaur

Bihar

 Poaching

 Bird trading

 Land disputes

 Fisheries

 Kursela River Course and Diyara Flood plain

Bihar

 Bird trapping

 Poaching

 Less scientific investigations

 Poor administration

 Agricultural runoff

 Mokama Tal

Bihar

 Poaching

 Construction of thermal power plants

 Agricultural runoff

 Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary

Bihar

 Agricultural runoff

 Fishing

 Transportation

 Khabar Tal

Bihar

 Poaching of birds 

 Weed infestation

 Agricultural encroachment

 Eutrophication

 Agricultural run off

 Livestock grazing

 Mora Mahananda Tal

Bihar

 Threatened by eutrophication and

 weed infestation

 Udhuwa Lake Bird Sanctuary

Jharkhand

 Illegal settlement

 Agriculture Poaching

 Illegal fishing

 Fertilizers and pesticides

 Naya Bandh Wetland complex

West Bengal

 Aquaculture activities

 Bird trapping

 Pesticides

 Land reclamation

 Naroradam and Adjoin Areas

Uttar Pradesh

 Over fishing

 Poaching

 Agricultural activities

 Pesticides

 Industrial pollution

 Farakka Barrage and Adjoining Areas

West Bengal

 Agricultural infestation

 Fisheries

 Obstruction of Hilisha migration

(Source: Wetland Report For Ganga River Basin Environment Management Plan, Report Code: 031_GBP_IIT_ENB_DAT_09_Ver 1_Jun 2012Constorium of Seven Indian Institutes of Technology)