Rain, which in the course of its history has combined with chemical elements or pollutants in the atmosphere and reaches the earth's surface as a weak acid solution.
ACIDITY OF WATER
Amount of acids, given as milli equivalents of a strong base per 1 litre of water, necessary to titrate the sample to a certain PH value.
The real evapotranspiration occurring in a specific situation.
Watercourse flowing into a larger watercourse or into a lake.
Ratio of reflected to incoming radiation, usually given in percent.
ALKALINITY OF WATER
Amount of cations balanced by weak acids, expressed as milli equivalents of neutralized hydrogen ions per litre of water.
Plain formed by the deposition of alluvial material eroded from areas of higher elevation.
An alluvial stream is one whose bed is composed of unconsolidated silt, sand and gravel. The bed is constantly in motion and highly unstable.
Instrument used for the measurement of wind speed and direction.
The highest peak discharge in a water year.
The precipitation occurring during some period antecedent to the defined event or some part of the defined event.
ANTECEDENT PRECIPITATION INDEX
A weighed summation of daily precipitation amounts used as an index of soil moisture. The weight given to each day's precipitation is usually assumed to be an exponential or reciprocal function of time with the most recent precipitation receiving the greatest weight.
An area of relatively high pressure surrounded by closed isobars, the pressure gradient being directed from the center so that the wind blows spirally outward in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, counter- clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
That branch of hydrology which refers to its applications to field connected with water resources development and management.
It is a formation which may contain large volumes of water but does not permit its movement at rates sufficiently high for economical development e.g. clay and shale.
It is a formation or a geological structure which has good permeability to supply sufficient quantity of water to a well or spring.
It is a formation which has no interconnected openings and hence can not absorb or transmit water. It is neither porous nor permeable.
It is a formation which has low to medium permeability which is not sufficient to be a source of water to flow on a regional scale from one aquifer to the other due to leakage. Formations having predominance of silt and clay along with kankar form aquitard. Behave as semi-confining layers.
AREA OF INFLUENCE
The areal extent of the cone of depression is called 'area of influence'.
Curves showing what part of the area of a watershed is situated above an indicated elevation and what is the capacity of watershed up to that elevation.
Precipitation in a specific area expressed as the average depth of liquid water over this area.
A method of measuring discharge at a section in a stream based on the continuity principle. Cross-sectional area of the stream is measured and velocity of flow is calculated using some type of instrument, say a current meter. Multiplication of area and velocity gives the discharge at that station.
A term applied to regions where precipitation is so deficient in quantity or occurs at such times that agriculture is impracticable without irrigation.
An artesian aquifer is overlain and underlain by confining layers such that water in these aquifers occurs under pressure, which is more than the atmospheric pressure.
A well penetrating an artesian aquifer is called artesian well. If the water level rises above the bottom of the confining bed but remains below Ground surface, then it is called artesian well. If water rises above ground surface, then it is called flowing well.
It means causing precipitation artificially by the introduction of materials like solid carbon dioxide or silver iodide into a non-precipitating cloud. The experiments have not yet become of economic importance.
Artificial recharge may be defined as augmenting the natural replenishment of ground water storage by some method of construction, spreading of water or by artificially changing natural conditions.
Porous, porcelain spheres, cylinders or blocks commonly used by plant physiologists for measuring evaporation because evaporation from their surfaces is considered to be quite representative of that from plants.
At those hydrometric stations where variable back-water occurs, it is necessary to utilize fall in a reach for the determination of discharge. An auxiliary gauge is installed some distance d/s with the same datum as that of the principal gauge.
Amount of fall in a stream which is available for hydroelectric power development.
A moving mass of debris, snow and ice sliding rapidly down a mountain slope.
AVERAGE ANNUAL FLOOD
A flood equal to the average of the annual floods during the period of record.
Rainfall equal to the average of the annual rainfalls during the period of record.
Reversal of the flow of water under pressure, for example, in a well to free the screen or strainer and the adjacent aquifer of clogging material.
Longitudinal profile of the water surface upstream in a stream where the water surface is raised by a natural or artificial obstruction.
Water absorbed and stored in the banks of a stream, lake or reservoir and returned in whole or in part as the level of the surface water body falls.
An instrument used for measuring pressure of the atmosphere.
The sustained or dry-weather flow of streams resulting from the outflow of permanent or perched ground water and from the draining of large lakes and swamps. Also water from glaciers, snow and all other possible sources not resulting from direct runoff.
Area drained by a river is called basin of the river.
Actually basin lag (also known as lag time) is the time difference between the centroids of the input (rainfall excess) and the output (surface runoff). Physically, it represents the mean time of travel of water particles from all parts of the catchment to the outlet during a given storm.
Basin recharge is the difference between precipitation and storm runoff. It is often being called loss because it represents loss to runoff, but the term loss is actually a misnomer from agricultural point of view.
Manner in which a basin reacts to a meteorological event or sequence of events.
Bed load may be defined as the load of bed material in the bed layer where suspension is impossible for fluid dynamic reasons. Sediment grains in the bed layer are not vertically supported by flow but rest on the bed almost continuously while sliding, rolling and jumping along.
The ratio of number of stream segments of a given order to the number of stream segments of the next higher order.
Water containing salts at a concentration significantly less than that of sea water. The concentration of total dissolved salts is usually in the range 100 10000 mg per liters.
In this gauge, compressed air or gas is made to bleed out at very small rate through an outlet placed at the bottom of the river. A pressure gauge measure gas pressure which is equal to the water column above the outlet. Small change in water surface elevation is felt as change in pressure.
Rainfall retained on standing vegetation and evaporated without dripping off or running down the stems or trunks.
The maximum height to which water will rise due to capillary forces above the water table.
Water held in the soil above the water table by capillary action.
The drainage basin of a river is called its catchment area. The catchment area includes all points that lie above the elevation of the gauging station and within the topographic divide that separate adjacent watersheds.
A catchment order is described depending on the stream order at the outlet or gauging station. A stream of any order has two or more tributaries of the next lower order.
A natural or artificial clearly distinguished waterway which periodically or continuously contains moving water or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.
Volume of water which can be temporarily stored in channels during flood periods.
Precipitation which falls directly on the water surfaces of lakes and streams.
The routing of a flood wave in a stream when the only storage is the valley storage.
The quantity of water within the main channel.
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
Mass concentration of oxygen equivalent to the amount of a specified oxidants consumed by dissolved or suspended matter when a water sample is treated with that oxidant under defined conditions.
It is an instrument used for estimation of evaporation. It is a standard par of 1210 mm diameter and 255 mm depth used by US Weather Bureau.
The sum total of all atmospheric or meteorological influences principally temperature, moisture, wind, pressure and evaporation which combine to characterise a region and give it individuality by influencing the nature of its land forms, soil, vegetation and land use.
Climate station instruments that must be protected from condensation, precipitation and radiation are house in climate shelters or screens. The typical shelter is white, double-topped, with louvered sides to permit free circulation of air.
Actual or supposed recurrences of such weather phenomena as wet and dry years, hot and cold years, at more or less regular intervals, in response to long range terrestrial and solar influences.
Rain storm of high intensity and of a relatively short duration usually over a relatively small area.
In cloud seeding, the clouds which contain appreciable amount of liquid water under colloidally stable conditions, are made colloidally unstable by the addition of dry ice, silver iodide or other chemical agents so that a certain part of this otherwise unavailable water will reach the ground as precipitation.
Soil which is eroded from sloping land may become lodged at fence rows and vegetated areas or deposited below breaks in slopes in the form of colluvium.
This pan, used to estimate evaporation is 920 mm square and 460 mm deep and buried into the ground within 100 mm of the top with the advantage that radiation and aerodynamic characteristics are similar to those of a lake.
The hydrograph of an intermittent storm when the flow on account of one substorm continues during the next substorm.
The rising limb of a hydrograph which represents the increase in discharge due to gradual building up of storage in channels and over the catchment surface.
CONCENTRIC RING INFILTROMETER
This is an instrument used for the measurement of infiltration. It consists of two concentric rings which are inserted into the ground and water is maintained on the soil surface to a common fixed level.
CONCEPTUAL HYDROLOGICAL MODEL
Simplified mathematical representation of some or all of the processes in the hydrological cycle by a set of hydrological concepts expressed in mathematical notations and linked together in a time and space sequence corresponding to that occurring in nature. Hydrological conceptual models are used for simulation of the behaviour of the basin.
Condensation of water vapour into cloud droplets takes place on certain hygroscopic particles which are commonly called condensation nuclei.
A downward curve showing the variation of draw down with distance from the well describes a conic shape in three dimensions called cone of depression.
Values which form the lower and upper limits to the confidence interval.
A confined aquifer, also known as artesian or pressure aquifer, is an aquifer which is confined between two impervious beds such as aquicludes or aquifuges and in which groundwater is confined under pressure greater than atmosphere.
Joining, or the place of junction, of two or more streams.
Conjunctive use involves the coordinated and planned operation of both surface water and ground water resources to meet water requirements in a manner whereby water is conserved. The basic difference between the usual surface water development with it's associated ground water development and a conjunctive operation of surface water and ground water resource is that the separate firm yields of the former can be replaced by larger and more economic joint, yields of the later.
The quantity of water used by vegetative growth of a given area in transpiration or building of plant tissue and that evaporated from the soil or from intercepted precipitation on the area in any specified time. It is expressed in water depth unit or depth-area units per unit area and for specified periods, such as days, months and seasons.
Introduction of any undesirable substance, normally not present, in water, e.g. micro-organisms, chemicals, waste or sewage, which renders the water unfit for its intended use.
Reach of a stream channel in which there exists a unique stage- discharge relationship.
Precipitation resulting from the upward movement of air that is warmer than its surrounding. It is generally of a showery nature with rapid changes of intensities.
Measure of the inter-dependence between two variates.
First product moment of two variates about their mean values.
It is that part of the hydrograph which contains the peak flow. Peak flow occurs when the runoff from various parts of the catchment simultaneously contribute the maximum amount of flow at the basin outlet.
CREST STAGE INDICATOR
This indicator is used to delineate the peak stage of a flood at points other than at a hydrometric station. Such data are valuable in the establishment of flood profiles.
CRITICAL STORM PERIOD
The duration of that storm which causes the greatest peak at a station in a drainage basin.
It is an empirical coefficient used in Blaney-Criddle formula for calculating the potential evapotranspiration for a particular crop. It is different for different crops.
Section of a stream at right angles to the main (average) direction of flow.
The science of ice in all its forms such as snow, ice and hall.
CUP-TYPE CURRENT METER
Current meter whose rotor is composed of a wheel fitted with cups and turning on a vertical axis.
It is the most commonly used instrument in hydrometry for measuring the velocity at a point in the flow cross-section of a river.
The precipitation associated with the passage of depressions of cyclones.
Barrier constructed across a valley for impounding water or creating a reservoir.
It states that the rate of flow per unit area of an aquifer is proportional to the gradient of the potential head measured in the direction of flow.
Comprehensive set of related data files for a specific application, usually on a direct access storage device.
Handling of observational data until they are in a form ready to be used for a specific purpose.
Storage volume which can not be released under normal conditions.
Water in a state of slow or no circulation, usually leading to an oxygen deficit.
Water which percolates below the root zone and towards a deeper water table.
It is a unit expressing the amount of heat in term of the departure of one degree per day in the daily mean temperature from an adopted reference temperature. The number of degree days for an individual day is the actual departure of the mean temperature from the standard. Standard temperature is usually taken as 0 C to 32 F.
It is defined as the gravitational flow of one fluid under another fluid of approximately equal density. Density currents thus separate the turbid water from the clear water and make the turbid water flow along the river bottom in the vicinity of the dam.
In the flow-duration curve, the ordinate Qp at any percentage probability Pp represents the flow magnitude in an average year that can be expected to be equalled or exceeded Pp % of time is called Pp % dependable flow. For perennial streams, Q is a finite value while for ephemeral stream Q is zero.
The depletion curve extends from the point of inflection at the end of the crest segment to the commencement of natural groundwater flow in a hydrograph. It represents the withdrawal of water from the storage built up in the basin during earlier phases of the storm.
Also called pocket storage, the volume of water usually expressed as depth on the drainage area which is required to fill natural depressions, large or small, to their overflow levels.
DEPTH OF RUNOFF
The total runoff from a drainage area or basin, divided by the area, expressed in either units of depth or units of volume per unit area of the basin.
It is a relation which is expressed between progressively decreasing average depth of rainfall of a given duration over a progressively increasing area from centre of maximum precipitation of a storm outward to its edges in an exponential fashion.
A curve which graphically indicates the precipitation amounts for various areas and durations for a particular rainstorm.
Flood-control reservoir with uncontrolled outlets.
Method of analysis of hydrological processes, using a deterministic approach to investigate the responses of hydrological systems in terms of various parameters.
Deposit of water drops on objects at or near the ground, produced by the condensation of water vapour from the surrounding clear air.
Recharge well that is sunk only into the unsaturated zone distinguished from an injection well.
Ratio of the observed or actual discharge to the theoretically computed discharge.
In the direction of the current in a river or stream.
Removal of surface water or groundwater from a given area by gravity or by pumping.
The area from which a lake, stream or waterway and reservoir receives surface flow which originates as precipitation.
Drainage coefficient is the water depth drained from an area in one day. These coefficients enable the designer to compare various drainage methods.
It is defined as the ratio of the total channel length to the total drainage area. A large drainage density creates situation conducive for quick disposal of runoff which is reflected in pronounced peaked discharge.
The drawdown at a given point is the distance by which water level is lowered.
A drawdown curve shows the variation of drawdown with distance from the well. In three dimensions, the drawdown curve describes a conic shape known as the cone of depression.
A fine sprinkle of numerous water droplets of size less than 0.5 mm and intensity less than 1mm/h. The drops are so small that they appear to float in the air.
In general an extended period of dry weather or a period of deficient rainfall that may extend over an indefinite number of days. Without any set quantitative standard by which to determine the degree of deficiency needed to constitute a drought. Qualitatively, it may be defined by its effects, as a dry period sufficient in length and severity to cause at least partial crop failure.
Computed value which is related to some of the cumulative effects of a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. An index of hydrological drought corresponding to levels below the mean in streams, lakes, reservoirs and the like. However, an index is agricultural drought must relate to the cumulative effects of either an absolute or an abnormal transpiration deficit.
Year of drought in which precipitation or streamflow is significantly less than normal.
The flow of water in a stream during the non-rainy season. It is primarily made of water which seeps from the ground. However, water supplied by snowmelt or regulated water released from a storage also become a part of it.
A graph representing the time during which the value of a given parameter e.g. water level, piezometric head, discharge, concentration of dissolved solids, is equalled or exceeded regardless of continuity in time.
An instrument by which the depth of water is determined by measuring the time taken by a sound signal to travel to the bottom and return.
Part of the rain that appears as runoff in the stream.
A stream or stretch of stream which receives water from groundwater in the zone of saturation. The water surface of such a stream stands at a lower level than the water table or piezometric surface of the ground water body from which it receives water. Also a stream flowing out of another stream or out of a lake.
It is an instrument for measuring discharge in a stream. It is based on the principle that an e.m.f. is induced in the conductor (water in the present case) when it cuts a normal magnetic field.
It is defined as the ratio of diameter of a circle of the same area as the basin to the maximum basin length. This ratio runs between 0.6 to 1.0 over a wide variety of climatic and geologic types.
Auxiliary spillway used in the event of floods exceeding the capacity of the main spillway.
EMPIRICAL FLOOD FORMULA
Formula expressing peak discharge as a function of catchment area and other factors.
ENERGY BUDGET METHOD
It is an analytical method for the determination of evaporation. It is a measurement of continuity of flow of energy. Energy available for evaporation is determined by considering the incoming energy, outgoing energy and energy stored in the water body over a known time interval.
That branch of applied hydrology which deals with hydrological information intended for engineering applications, e.g. planning, designing, operating and maintaining engineering measures and structures.
- A smooth curve which envelops all the plotted points representing maximum recorded flood peaks and volumes for hydrometeorologically comparable areas.
- A smooth curve covering either all peak values or all trough values of certain quantities e.g. rainfall, runoff etc. plotted against other factors such as area and time. In general, none of the peak values goes above the curve in former case, called the maximum envelop and non of the minimum points fall below in the later case called the minimum
A stream or a portion of a stream which flows only in direct response to precipitation.
Equilibrium equation is used to determine the hydraulic conductivity or the transmissivity of a confined aquifer from a pumped well by measuring draw downs in two observation wells at different distances from a well pumped at constant rate.
It is defined as the wearing away of land by water, wind, ice or gravity.
Lake characterized by a great amount of nutrients and biogenic matters and by highly developed phytoplankton is summer.
The process by which water is changed from the liquid state to the gaseous state below the boiling point through the transfer of heat energy.
Ratio of actual rate of evaporation from land or water surface in contact with the atmosphere to the potential rate of evaporation under existing atmospheric conditions.
An experimental tank used to determine the amount of evaporation from the surface of water under measured or observed climatic conditions.
An instrument for measuring evaporation.
It is the process by which water moves from the soil to the atmosphere. It consists of transpiration, the movement of water through the plant to the atmosphere & evaporation, the movement of water vapour from soil and vegetative surfaces. Thus the entire surface as well as subsurface water which is released from a basin into the atmosphere by process of evaporation and transpiration is generally known as evapotranspiration.
The exceedence interval is defined as the average number of years between the occurrence of an event and a greater event.
Basin in which natural conditions are deliberately modified and in which the effects of these modifications on the hydrological cycle are studied.
Amount of precipitation that is the physical upper limit for a given duration over a particular basin.
EXTREME VALUE DISTRIBUTION
Fisher Tippet Type I External distribution applied by Gumbel to the annual maximum flood series and by others to rainfall series.
Also called base flow, it is composed of ground water runoff and delayed subsurface runoff.
The amount of water held in the soil after the excess gravitational water has drained away and after the rate of downward movement of water has materially decreased. Essentially the same as 'specific retention', a more general term used in studies of ground water which covers all types of strata. Furthermore, field capacity is usually expressed as a percentage of weight while specific retention is generally given as percentage by volume.
The percentage of the total volume of water delivered to the field that is finally consumed by evapotranspiration.
Boundary which, at the Earth's surface, separates zone of accumulation of a glacier from the zone of ablation.
A flood of short duration and abrupt rise with a relatively high peak rate of flow, usually resulting form a high intensity of rainfall.
This is most common type of automatic float operated stage recorder. Float operating in a stilling well is balanced by means of a counter weight over the pulley of a recorder. Displacement of float is traversed on a chart continuously and stage versus time plot is made.
It is US Geological Survey evaporation pan set afloat in a lake with a view to simulate the characteristics of a large body of water. Water level in the pan is kept at the same level as the lake, leaving a ring of 75 mm.
The flow pattern in a stream, constituting a distinct progressive rise culminating in a peak or summit together with the recession that follows the crest.
Any measure taken outside of stream channel with the effect of educing the crest of flood flows or changing the debris load for a flood event.
The increase in storage of water in a reservoir, lake, valley or channel resulting in a reduction of streamflow.
Flood control means flood damage prevention or reduction together with the protection of economic development and protection of life.
The destruction or impairment, partial or complete, of human and animal lives, property, goods, services, flora and fauna or of health etc., resulting from the action of floods water and the silt and debris they carry. It includes direct and indirect losses.
It is the discharge passing at a particular site during a flood event.
Prediction of stage, discharge, time of occurrence and duration of a flood, especially of peak discharge, at a specified point on a stream resulting from precipitation or snowmelt so that people could be warned well in advance and life and movable goods could be saved to a large extent.
- The number of times a flood of a given magnitude is likely to be equaled or exceeded over a period of years on the average.
- The number of years in which a flood of a given magnitude is likely to be equaled or exceeded once on the average over a period of years.
The trace of any kind left on the banks or flood plain by a flood which may be used, after the flood, to determine the highest level attained by the water surface during the flood.
Land adjoining the channel which is inundated only during floods.
Combination of emergency equation and structural adjustments for modifying a given property and thus reducing flood losses.
The process of determining progressively the timing and shape of a flood wave at successive points along a river.
A List of flood events which occurred during a specified period of time.
The elevation of water surface during a flood relative to a datum, local or national.
The channel of a river or stream and those portions of the flood plains adjoining the channel, which are required to carry and discharge the flood water.
FLOW DURATION CURVE
Curve showing the percentage of time during which the flow of a stream is equal to or greater than given amounts, regardless of chronological order.
It is an instrument used for measuring the rate of flow in a conduit or open channel.
A graph of the cumulative values of discharge of runoff, generally as ordinate, plotted against time as abscissa. The curve has many useful applications such as the determination of reservoir capacity, operations procedure and flood routing.
It is the science of water related phenomena that are influenced by forest cover. It is an interdisciplinary science, the union of forestry and hydrology.
It is the head drop required to cause laminar flow through the porous media.
Vertical distance between the normal maximum level of the surface of liquid in a conduit, reservoir, tank, canal, etc. and the top of the sides of the retaining structure.
Procedure involved in interpreting a past record of hydrological events in terms of future probabilities of occurrence, e.g. estimates of frequencies of floods, droughts, storage, rainfall, water quality, waves.
Specification of the way in which the frequencies of members of a population are distributed according to the values of the variates which they exhibit (DST).
Water neither salty nor bitter to the taste and in general, chemically suitable for human consumption (having a low content in dissolved solids).
Precipitation caused by the expansion of air on ascent along or near a frontal surface.
A light feathery deposit of ice caused by condensation of water vapour directly in the crystalline form, on terrestrial objects whose temperature is below freezing, the process being the same by which dew is formed, except that the later occurs only when the temperature of the bedewed object is above freezing.
Stream fed by groundwater.
An instrument used for measuring depth of water.
Location on a stream where measurements of water level and discharge are regularly made.
Branch of hydrology related to subsurface and subterranean water.
Body of land ice formed from recrystallised snow accumulated on the ground; may form where annual accretion of snow is greater than ablation by runoff and evaporation. There are two broad classes
- Ice streams which form in mountain valleys and move downslope under gravity.
- Ice cap which cover large land masses and spread out radially because of great pressures built up by their weight.
An instrument used for measuring glacial motion.
Water in the unsaturated zone which moves under the influence of gravity.
Also called freezing rain, it is reported when rain falls into a cold layer of air and freezes when it strikes objects on the ground.
Water in a saturated zone of geologic stratum.
It may be defined as a hydrogeologic unit containing one large aquifer or several connected and interrelated aquifers. It implies an area containing a groundwater reservoir capable of furnishing a substantial water supply.
Decreasing rate of groundwater discharge to surface water bodies during periods of no recharge, connected to the depletion of ground water storage, and expressed by groundwater recessive curve.
Process by which water is added from outside to the zone of saturation of an aquifer, either directly into a formation, or indirectly by way another formation.
That part of the runoff which consists of water that has passed into the earth and has entered the zone of saturation and has later been discharged into a water body.
A channel or miniature valley formed as a result of erosion and caused by concentrated but intermittent flow of water usually during or immediately after heavy rains. The channel is deep enough to interior with tillage operations. Gully may be dendritic or branching or linear (long, narrow and of uniform width). Gully may be U, V or W shaped.
It is one of the most widely used probability distribution functions for extreme values in hydrologic and meteorologic studies for prediction of flood peaks, maximum rainfall, maximum wind speed etc.
Small, roughly spherical lumps of approximately concentric shells of clear ice and compact snow usually ranging from 5 to 10 mm or more in diameter which fall either separately or agglomerated into larger irregular lumps precipitated during thunder storms.
HARDNESS OF WATER
That property of water, due mainly to bicarbonates, chlorides anulphates of calcium and magnesium, which prevents the production of abundant lather with soap.
Decrease of total head, expressed in units of height, due to energy dissipation.
Streams from the sources of a river.
Water enriched in water molecules containing heavier (stable and radioactive) isotopes of hydrogen (Deuterium, Tritium) and Oxygen 18.
Univariate frequency diagram with rectangles proportional in area to the class frequency, erected on a horizontal axis with width equal to the class interval.
Hydrological and Meteorological data of events which occurred in the past. Data is collected from natural phenomena that can be observed only once and then will not occur again.
These are very intense low pressure systems with winds in excess of 75 m.p.h. It is an intense cyclone of tropical origin and of relatively small horizontal dimensions (110-300 miles). Storms of this type are called cyclones in India and typhoons in the far east. Hurricanes form where sea surface temperature is above 27 C in general; hurricanes are accompanied by torrential rains.
It is a constant that serves as a measure of permeability of the porous medium. A medium has a unit hydraulic conductivity if it will transmit in unit time a unit volume of ground water at the prevailing kinematic viscosity through a cross section of unit area measured at right angles to the direction of flow, under a unit hydraulic gradient.
- In a closed conduit the slope of the hydraulic grade line.
- In open channels: the slope of the water surface.
- In porous media: measure of the decrease in head per unit distance in the direction of flow.
That branch of geology relating to effect of water on earth.
A graph showing the stage, volume of flow, velocity, sediment concentration or sediment discharge or some other feature of flowing water with respect to time at a given place. For example, a graph showing the discharge of a stream as ordinate against time as abscissa is called a discharge hydrograph.
A phenomena relating to circulation of water from the sea, through the atmosphere to the land, and thence, often with many delays, back to the sea or ocean through various stages and processes, for example, precipitation, interception, runoff, infiltration, percolation, ground water storage, evaporation and transpiration. Also the many short circuits of the water that is returned to the atmosphere without reaching the sea.
The water inventory equation (inflow = o0utflow + change in storage) which expresses the basic principle that during a given time interval the total inflow to an area must equal the total outflow plus the net change in storage.
Failures due to improper assessment of hydrological factors such as overtopping and consequent failure of an earthen dam due to inadequate spillway capacity, failure of bridges and culverts due to excess flood flow, inability of a large reservoir to fill up due to overestimation of stream flow etc.
It is a network of stations for measuring hydrologic variables such as rainfall and river stage stations. Adequacy of hydrologic network is dependent upon the character of the drainage basin and the critical need of the regulating system.
Study of the atmospheric and land phases of the hydrological cycle, with emphasis on the interrelationships involved.
The applied science concerned with the water of the earth in all its stages their occurrences, distribution and circulation through the unending hydrologic cycle of precipitation, runoff, streamflow, infiltration, storage, evaporation and reprecipitation. It is concerned with the physical, chemical and physiological reactions of water with the rest of the earth and its relation to the life of the earth.
The measurement and analysis of the flow of water as well as the measurement of the specific gravity of water or suspensions of finely divided solids in water.
These are the stations where measurement of discharge in a stream is made at particular points. These must be sited adequately in the catchment area so that the water potential of the area can be assessed as accurately as possible.
A bar graph of average rainfall, rainfall excess rates or volumes over specified areas during successive units of time during a storm.
The phenomenon that soil moisture tension at a given moisture content depends on the past history of wetting and drying cycles (of soil moisture). The variability of the stage-discharge relation at a gauging station subject to variable slope where, for the same gauge height, the discharge on the rising stage is greater than on the falling stage.
ISI STANDARD PAN
This pan evaporimeter specified by IS, also known as modified class A pan, consists of a pan 1220 mm in diameter, 255 mm deep and made of copper sheet 0.9 mm thick. The top is fully covered with a hexagonal wire mesh to protect water from birds.
Solid form of water in nature formed by the freezing of water, the condensation of atmospheric water vapour directly into crystals, the compaction of snow with or without the motion of a glacier or the impregnation of porous snow masses with water which subsequently freezes.
Perennial cover of ice and snow over an extensive are a of land or sea.
It is water entering the ground from a surface water source as a result of withdrawal of ground water adjacent to the source. Induced recharge can furnish water free of organic matter and pathogenic bacteria.
The entrance of water into the soil or other porous material through the interstices or pores of a soil or other porous medium.
Maximum rate at which specified soil in given condition can absorb water.
INFILTRATION CAPACITY CURVE
A curve showing what the infiltration rate would be at any period during a specified storm if the rainfall intensity were to equal or exceed the capacity at any instant.
Infiltration index, in general, expresses infiltration at an average rate throughout the storm.
A device by which the rate and amount of water infiltrating into the soil is determined.
It is a point on the hydrograph which represents start of withdrawal of water from the storage built up in the basin during the earlier phases of the hydrograph. It is the starting point of the recession limb and end point of crest segment. Point of inflection represents the condition of maximum storage.
A stream or stretch of stream which contributes water to the zone of saturation. The water surface of such stream stands at a highest level than the water table or piezometric surface of the ground water body to which it contributes water.
Maximum amount of rainfall that can be absorbed under specific conditions without producing runoff. Also referred to as initial losses, it is sum of interception and depression storage.
That part of precipitation which does not appear either as infiltration or as surface runoff during period of precipitation or immediately thereafter, includes interception by vegetal cover, depression storage and evaporation during precipitation, does not include surface detention.
INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPH
When the unit duration of the rainfall excess is infinitesimally small, the resulting hydrograph is known as instantaneous unit hydrograph.
The intensity of storms decreases with the increase in storage duration. Further a storm of any given duration will have a larger intensity if its return period is large. The curves showing the interdependence between the intensity, duration and return period are commonly referred to as intensity duration frequency curves.
The process by which precipitation is caught and held by foliage twigs and branches of the trees, shrubs and other vegetation, and lost by evaporation, never reaching the surface of the ground.
Throughfall gauges are called interceptometers, evidently because of their function in estimating canopy interception.
A part of the precipitation that infilters into the ground moves laterally through upper crusts of the soil and returns to the surface at some location away from the point of entry into the soil. This component of runoff is known as interflow. The amount of interflow depends on the geological conditions of the catchment.
Stream which flows during a season. It has limited contribution from the ground water. During the wet season, water table is above the stream bed and there is contribution of base flow to the stream flow. During dry season, water table drops below stream bed and stream dries out.
Quantity of water, exclusive of precipitation, that is required for optimal crop production.
It is a line on a map of a catchment joining points having equal time of travel to the outlet of the catchment.
A line drawn on a map passing through places having equal amount of rainfall recorded during the same period at these places (these lines are drawn after giving consideration to the topography of the region).
Lines on a map through places having equal depths of evapotranspiration.
Lines joining points of equal temperatures.
It is water derived from magma or molten mass of igneous rocks during their crystallisation or from lava flows in the form of stream. It is water that has come to the earth surface from great depths for the first time.
River which originates from a karstic spring or flows in a karstic region that is, in a region having carbonaceous rocks as CaCo3.
It is the time interval from the centre of mass of rainfall to the centre of mass of hydrograph.
An extensive sheet of water, bounded by land, in a hollow of the earth surface. It is an inland body of water which is formed more due to glacial erosion than due to any other agency.
It is a pan placed on the ground for the purpose of measuring evaporation.
A large watershed is one in which the effect of channel flow or basin storage is dominating rather than the effect of overland flow. It has very less sensitivity to high intensity rainfall of short duration.
Inflow of water to a river, lake or reservoir along any reach from the part of the catchment adjacent to the reach.
Water required for the removal of salts from the upper soil by relatively salt-free water.
Aquifers which are overlain or underlain by semi-permeable strata are referred to as leaky aquifers. Such aquifers are confined in the sense that pumping does not dewater the aquifers, but a significant portion of the yield may be derived by vertical leakage through the confining formations into the aquifers.
That branch of hydrology relating to water of lakes and ponds.
An imaginary channel in which the rating curve between discharge and area is a straight line such that at any point, the velocity of flow is constant for all discharges, but may vary from point to point along the channel.
An imaginary reservoir in which the storage S is directly proportional to the outflow Q.
Volume or cubic capacity of a lake or reservoir between the maximum and minimum operating levels.
Maximum sediment quantity per unit time which can be transported by specified flow in a channel.
Water entering a stream between two gauging stations.
This is a transformed normal distribution in which the variate is replaced by its logarithmic value. This is a screw distribution of unlimited range in both directions.
LOG PEARSON TYPE III DISTRIBUTION
This is one of the commonly used frequency distribution functions for the prediction of extreme flood values. In this distribution, the variate is first transformed into logarithmic form and the transformed data is then analysed.
Stream which contributes water to the groundwater by infiltration.
The term is applied to a stream that disappears completely underground in a limestone terrain.
Tanks with pervious bottom commonly used for determining evapotranspiration of crops and natural vegetation by growing the plants in them and measuring the loss of water necessary to maintain the growth satisfactorily.
A curve with values of cumulative rainfall or runoff etc. plotted against time.
MASS TRANSFER METHOD
This is one of the analytical methods for the determination of lake evaporation. This method is based on theories of turbulent mass transfer in boundary layer to calculate the mass water vapour transfer from the surface to the surrounding atmosphere.
MAXIMUM INTENSITY OF FLOOD
Also called momentary flood peak, it is the maximum instantaneous rate of flow during a period.
MAXIMUM KNOWN FLOOD
The highest flood which has occurred within the memory of the inhabitants of a region.
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE FLOOD
It is the greatest flood to be expected assuming complete coincidence of all factors that would produce heaviest rainfall and maximum runoff.
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE PRECIPITATION
The maximum amount of precipitation that can theoretically occur for a certain duration in a drainage area or basin during the present climatic era.
MAXIMUM PROBABLE FLOOD
The extreme flood that is physically possible in a region as a result of severe most combinations, including rare combinations of meteorological and hydrological factors.
MEAN ANNUAL EVAPORATION
The mean value in depth units of evaporation, the period of observation being of adequate duration to secure approximate constancy.
MEAN ANNUAL FLOOD
It is defined as a flood having a recurrence interval of 2.33 years. This is based on Gumbel's distribution which has the property that gives T = 2.33 years for the average of the annual series when N is very large.
MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION
The mean of annual amount of precipitation observed over a period which is sufficiently (say 30 years or more) to produce a fairly constant mean value.
MEAN MONTHLY RUNOFF
The value of the monthly volume of water discharged by the stream draining the area, the period of observation being sufficiently long to secure a fair mean.
Cross-section of an open channel in which measurements of depth and velocity are made.
Middle value of the variate which divides frequencies in a distribution into two equal portions.
Science of the atmosphere.
MINIMUM ANNUAL FLOW
The smallest of the annual flows during the period of record.
Model with different scale in different directions.
MOISTURE ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
It is the ratio of the maximum total moisture in an atmospheric column of unit cross section in the region to the total moisture in a similar column that occurred during the storm.
Under-pressure to which water must be subjected in order to be in hydraulic equilibrium, through a porous permeable wall or membrane, with the water of the soil, usually expressed in cm of water or mm of mercury.
It is a wind system with an annual oscillation, blowing from oceans to continents in summer and in the reverse direction in winter. These oscillations, which are in response to the annual heating and cooling of the underlying surface, are quite general, though the Indian monsoon is most widely known, mainly because of excessive dryness during the winter and the equally excessive rainfall during the summer season.
MOVING AVERAGE ANALYSIS
It is a method of flood routing through a channel. The method involves the concept of wedge and prism storage.
Analysis of the interdependence of more than two variables.
Project designed, constructed and operated to serve more than purpose, e.g. flood control, hydroelectric power, navigation, irrigation, fisheries, water supply, recreation.
It is a method of flood routing through a channel. The method involves the concept of wedge and prism storage.
Reach of a stream channel where natural conditions exist that the water level upstream a stable index of the discharge.
NET STORM RAIN
Portion of rainfall during a storm which reaches a stream channel as direct runoff.
Wind shield for precipitation gauges, shaped like an inverted cone, with base of the cone level with the lip of the gauge.
These gauges do not produce a continuous plot of rainfall against time but measure only the total depth of precipitation due to a particular storm.
Flow in which the velocity vector is not constant along every streamline.
Mathematically defined, symmetrical, bell-shaped, continuous probability distribution traditionally assumed to represent random errors.
Evan value of rainfall taken over a period of such length that the mean over any longer period does not significantly effect the value obtained. It is used as a standard of comparison. It is generally taken as the average value of rainfall at a particular date, month or year over a specified 30 year period.
It is a method of estimating the missing data of precipitation at a station by weighing the precipitation at various neighbouring stations by the ratios of normal annual precipitation. This method is used when the normal annual precipitation of the station having missing record differs from the normal annual precipitation of the stations having known record by more than 10%.
It is north easterly flow of air that picks up moisture in the Bay of Bengal and this air mass then strikes the east coast of the southern peninsula (Tamilnadu) and causes rainfall.
A flood which has a probability of being equaled or exceeded once in N years or has one chance in N of occurring in any one year.
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Flowing water having its surface exposed to the atmosphere.
System design based on the selection or combination of all pertinent variables so as to maximize some objective function (such as net benefits) with the requirements of the design criteria.
Amount of water which can be withdrawn annually from an aquifer or from a basin according to some pre-determined criterion of optimal exploitation.
Precipitation caused by dynamic cooling of air as an air current rises over a mountain barrier.
Lowest point on the boundary of a drainage system.
OVER BANK FLOW
The portion of stream flows which exceed the carrying capacity of the normal channel and overflow the adjoining flood plains.
Amount of water withdrawn from a water resources system in excess of the safe yield.
The flow of water over the land surface towards stream channels before it becomes channelised is called overland flow.
It is the ratio of actual evaporation to the observed evaporation in evaporation pan. Evaporation pans do not give exact evaporation values because
- they differ in the heat storing capacity and heat transfer from the sides and bottom
- the height of rim in the pan affects wind action on the surface
- heat transfer characteristics of the pan material is different from that of the reservoir.
PARTIAL DURATION SERIES
Also called partial series, it is a series of data which are so selected that their magnitude is greater than a certain base value.
PARTIALLY PENETRATING WELL
Well in which the length of water entry is less than the thickness of the saturated aquifer which it penetrates.
Maximum instantaneous discharge of a given hydrograph.
Group of probability distribution of varying skewness and other properties which were proposed by karl pearson and which are sometimes fitted to hydrological data.
Water in the zone of aeration is held against gravity most of the time, in capillary interstices and in thin films over surfaces of the grains due to strong molecular attraction of the solid particles at the solid/liquid interface.
The amount of runoff expressed as percentage of total rainfall on a given area.
PERCENT NORMAL METHOD
It is a method of finding average precipitation in mountaineous areas where arithmetic means and Thiessen weights can not be applied accurately. In this method, storm precipitation values at each station can be expressed in percent of its annual normal, and these percentage values are averaged for the basin. The basin normal annual precipitation multiplied by this storm percent value provides an average storm precipitation. Use of this percent normal method reduces the need for a consistent reporting network.
Sometimes a lens or localised patch of impervious strata can occur inside an unconfined aquifer in such a way that it retains water table above the general water table. Such a water table retained around the impervious material is known as perched water table.
It is flow through a porous substance.
A perennial stream is one which always carries some flow. There is considerable amount of ground water flow throughout the year. Even during dry seasons the water table will be above the bed of the stream.
If the stage discharge relationship for a gauging section is constant and does not change with time, the control is said to be permanent control. A majority of streams and rivers, especially non alluvial exhibit permanent control.
PERMANENT WILTING PERCENTAGE
Moisture content of the soil at which the leaves of plants growing in that soil become permanently wilted.
Permeability of a rock or soils defines its ability to transmit a fluid. This is property of the medium only and is independent of fluid properties.
It is defined as the rate of discharge per unit cross sectional area of a porous medium under unit hydraulic gradient.
Absolute value of the decimal logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration (activity). Used as an indicator of acidity (pH<7) or alkalinity (pH > 7).
It is an instrument for measuring coefficient of permeability of a porous medium.
The index is an average rate of infiltration derived from a time intensity graph of rainfall in such a manner that the volume of rainfall in excess of this rate will equal the volume of storm runoff.
Device for measuring transpiration, consisting of vessel containing soil in which one or more plants are rooted and sealed so that water can escape only by transpiration from plants.
- Elevation to which water will rise in a piezometer connected to a point in an aquifer.
- Sum of the elevation and pressure head in a liquid, expressed in units of height.
The purpose of frequency analysis of an annual series is to obtain a relation between the magnitude of the event and its probability of exceedence. The exceedence probability of the event obtained by the use of an empirical formula is called, plotting position. Various empirical formulae used are California, Hazen, Weibull etc.
Rainfall at a particular site recorded by a raingauge.
Volume of voids filled with stagnant water, which practically does not participate in the general flow, per unit gross soil volume, voids inclusively.
That branch of hydrology which pertains to surface streams, the science of rivers.
The amount of water utilised by plant growth including evaporation from the soil if the soil contains sufficient moisture for plant growth at all times.
It is the total amount of water vapors in the atmosphere, frequently expressed as depth of precipitable water. This term is a misnomer, since no natural precipitation process removes all the moisture from the air.
The total supply of water derived from the atmosphere in the form of rain, snow, dew, mist, frost, hail, sleet etc. It is usually expressed as depth of liquid water on a horizontal surface in a day, month or year and designated so daily, monthly or annual precipitation.
It is that portion of the total channel storage during a flood which corresponds to a condition of steady flow that is when inflow and outflow are equal. It is the volume formed by an imaginary plane parallel to the channel bottom drawn at the outflow section water surface.
Basic statistical concept either expressing in some way a "degree of belief" or taken as a limiting relative frequency of occurrence in an infinite series.
Distribution given the probability of a value of a variate as a function of the variate.
Graph paper designed in such a way that the cumulative probability of a theoretical distribution plots as a straight line, e.g. normal probability paper, log-normal probability paper, extreme value probability paper.
PROBABLE MAXIMUM FLOOD
It is defined as that flood which is estimated to result, if the most critical combination of severe meteorological and hydrological conditions considered reasonably possible in the region, were to occur.
PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION
It is the theoretically greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration that is physically possible over a particular drainage basin at a particular season.
It is the interflow with least time lag between infiltration and outflow.
A hygrometer, or instrument for measuring the aqueous vapour in the atmosphere, consisting essentially of two similar thermometers, the bulb of one being kept wet.
Extraction of water from a well at one or more selected discharge rates, during which piezometric or phreatic levels are measured regularly at the pumped well and at nearby observation wells, the data are used for determining the aquifer parameters in the vicinity of the pumped well.
Also called interflow, it is a part of precipitation which after infiltration moves laterally through upper crusts of the soil and returns to the surface at some location away from the point of entry into the soil.
Method of age determination based on the property of radioactive decay of isotopes.
Radioactive material detectable by its nuclear radiation and suitable for water tracing even at very low concentrations.
Radial extent of the cone of depression is called radius of influence. It is the distance between centre of well and outer periphery of drawdown curve.
Also called pluviometer, ombrometer and hyetometer, it is an instrument for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at a given place and time.
A region on the leeward side of a mountain or mountain range where the rainfall is much less than one the windward side.
Evaporation from the raindrops in the process of their fall from the atmosphere to the earth.
The total liquid products of precipitation or condensation from the atmosphere as received and measured in a rain gauge.
RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT
The distribution coefficient for any storm is the ratio of the maximum rainfall at any point to the mean rainfall in the basin.
Also called net rainfall or effective rainfall, it is part of the rainfall that appears as runoff in the stream.
The amount of rainfall occurring in a unit interval of time, generally expressed in mm per hour.
It is one type of infiltrometer in which water is applied in the form of natural rain and at rates comparable with natural rainfall. Specially designed nozzles produce raindrops falling from a height of 2 m and are capable of producing various intensities of rainfall.
Stochastic process in which the numbers of the time series are independent among themselves.
A curve showing the relation between stage and discharge of stream at a given gauging station.
Length of open channel between two defined cross sections.
It is a natural or artificial process by which water is added from outside to the zone of saturation of an aquifer, either directly into a formation or indirectly by way of another formation.
Recording raingauges produce a continuous plot of rainfall against time and provide valuable data of intensity and duration of rainfall for hydrological analysis of storms. Tipping bucket type raingauge gives intensity of rainfall whereas weighing bucket type raingauge gives mass curve of rainfall.
Pumping test consisting of the measurement at predetermined time intervals, of the rise of the piezometric level or water table in a pumped well or in the surrounding observation wells after stoppage of pumping.
Statistical parameter used in frequency analysis as a measure of most probable time interval between occurrence of a given event and that of an equal or greater event.
Statistical method developed to investigate the interdependence or relationship between two or more measurable variates. The most common form of regression analysis is linear regression.
The falling limb, after the point of contra flexure, of hydrograph after a flood event. This represents withdrawal of water from storage in the valley, stream channel and the subsurface runoff.
At a given pressure and temperature, the percentage ratio of the mole fraction of the water vapour to the mole fraction that the air would have if it were saturated with respect to water at the same pressure and temperature.
Basin in which hydrological stations are installed to make simultaneous hydrometeorological and hydrometric observations so that the measurements would represent a broad area in lieu of making measurements on all basins in a given region.
Body of water, either natural or man-made, used for storage, regulation and control of water resources.
RESERVOIR RELEASE RULES
Rules governing the way in which volumes of water are released from a reservoir in order to meet demand, downstream protection, expected future low flows and other considerations.
The routing of a flood wave through a reservoir.
RESIDUAL MASS CURVE
Graph of the cumulative departures from a given reference, such as the arithmetic average, versus time or date.
A reservoir wherein water is stored for a relatively brief period of time, part of it being retained until the stream can safely carry the ordinary flow plus the released water.
That part of the precipitation falling on a drainage area which does not escape as surface stream flow during a given period. It is the difference between total precipitation and total runoff during the period and represents evaporation, transpiration, subsurface leakage, infiltration and when short periods are considered, temporary surface and underground storage on an area. When periods of several years are considered, it approximates consumptive use.
Graph representing the suction pressure versus the moisture or water content, in an unsaturated soil.
That portion of the water, diverted from a river or stream, which ultimately finds its way back through surface runoff (visible flow) and as percolation or seepage through the bed and banks (invisible flow).
Also called recurrence interval, it is statistical parameter used in frequency analysis as measure of most probable time interval between occurrence of a given event and that of an equal or greater event.
The ascending portion of a hydrograph.
RIVER STAGE RECORDER
These are instruments used for measuring discharge in a river at a particular gauging station. They record the water surface elevation in the river above the datum which is related to the discharge in the stream.
Layer of soil containing plant roots.
A curve devised to indicate operation of a reservoir so as to obtain the best results based on past experience and to be applied to future operation with a view to attain best use of the reservoir for its intended purposes.
It is defined as that portion of precipitation which is not absorbed by the deep strata but finds its way into the streams after meeting the persistent demands of evapotranspiration including interception and other losses. It includes surface runoff received into the channels after rainfall, delayed runoff that enters the streams after passing through portion of the earth and other delayed runoff that has been temporarily detained as snow cover or stored in natural lakes or swamps.
The ratio of runoff to precipitation.
A graph showing the summation of the ordinates of a series of unit hydrographs spaced at unit rainfall duration interval. It represents the hydrograph of average rate of rainfall excess of the unit duration continued indefinitely.
It is defined as the amount of water which can be withdrawn annually from a ground water basin without producing undesirable effect.
Measure of the concentration of dissolved salts, mainly sodium chloride, in saline water or sea water.
Phenomenon occurring when a body of salt water invades a body of fresh water. It can occur either in surface or groundwater bodies.
Maximum possible partial pressure of water vapour in the air or atmosphere at a given temperature.
Also called sediment discharge, it is the quantity of sediment (suspended load and bed load) by volume or dry weight transported in unit time across a stream or channel cross section.
It is the process involving settling and deposition of sediments in water by gravity.
Slow percolation generally associated with flow in an unsaturated medium. Seepage into a body is termed "influent seepage" and that away from a body as "effluent seepage". The difference between percolation and seepage is that the latter is through unsaturated material while the former is through saturated material.
A term applied to a zone or climate neither entirely arid nor strictly humid but with a pronounced tendency towards arid character in which certain type of crops can be grown without irrigation.
Aquifer overlain and/or underlain by a relatively thin semi-pervious layer, through which flow into or out of the aquifer can take place.
Land or climate, neither entirely arid nor strictly humid, with pronounced tendency towards humid character.
If stage discharge relationship for a gauging section changes with time, it is called shifting control. The relationship can change due to
- changing characteristics caused by weed growth, dredging or channel encroachment
- aggradation or degradation phenomenon in an alluvial channel
- unsteady flow effects of a rapidly changing stage
- variable back water effects affecting the gauging station
SHORT-TERM HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTING
Forecast of the future value of an element of the regime of a water body for a period ending up to two days from the issue of the forecast.
It is frozen raindrop or transparent grains which form when rain falls through air at subfreezing temperature. In Britain, sleet denotes precipitation of snow and rain simultaneously.
It is a very versatile indirect method of discharge estimation which requires
- selection of a reach in which cross sectional properties including bed elevations are known at its ends
- the value of Manning's N and
- water surface elevations at the two end sections.
A small watershed may be defined as one that is so small that its sensitivity to high intensity rainfall of short duration and to land use are not suppressed by the channel storage characteristics. By this definition, the size of a small watershed may be found from few acres to 1000 acres, or even upto 50sq. miles. The upper limit of the area depends on the condition at which the above mentioned sensitivity becomes practically lost due to the channel storage effect. Effect of overland flow is a dominating factor than the effect of channel flow.
Precipitation from the atmosphere in the form of branched hexagonal crystals or stars, often mixed with simple ice crystals, which fall more or less continuously from a solid cloud sheet. These crystals may fall either separately or in coherent clusters forming snow flakes.
A snow course consists of a series of sampling points, usually not fewer than 10. The points are located along a predetermined geometric pattern at a spacing of 50 to 100 ft. The ends and pivots of the pattern are permanently marked to make certain that the snow is surveyed at the same locations year after year.
An instrument used to measure the amount of snowfall. Weighing type storage gauges operate in mountainous regions for 1 to 2 months without servicing while some non recording storage gauges are designed to operate for an entire season without attention.
It is the transformation of snow into liquid water.
Field of naturally packed snow that ordinarily melts slowly and yields water during early summer months.
Water without significant hardness.
Soil conservation implies all the effective measures taken to reduce the amount of soil erosion. Erosion resulting from intense rainfall can be reduced by (i) protecting the soil surface from raindrop impact through the use of crop cover or mulch and (ii) reduction of surface runoff by encouraging infiltration through proper selection of cover.
SOIL MOISTURE DEFICIT
The amount of water that should be applied to the soil to cause thorough drainage and is substantially equal to the soil moisture deficit then existing.
This zone lies close to the ground surface in the major root band of the vegetation from which water is lost to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration.
Current meters are weighed down by lead weights called sounding weights. These weights enable current meters to enable themselves to position in a stable manner at the required location in flowing water.
It is south westerly flow of air which originates in the Indian Ocean, picks up moisture and advances over India in two branches i.e. the Arabian sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. The former sets in at the extreme southern part of Kerala and the latter in Assam, almost simultaneously in the first week of June. This is the principle rain causing monsoon in India.
Specific capacity of a well is the discharge per unit drawdown and is a measure of the performance of the well. For a given well, it is not constant but decreases with increase in discharge and time.
It is a ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the volume of water retained in the soil against the force of gravity, after complete saturation, to the volume of the soil.
It is a ratio, expressed as percentage, of the volume of water which is drained by the force of gravity, after complete saturation, to the volume of the soil.
SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOOD
Design flood used for the specific purpose of designing the spillway of a storage structure. This term is frequently used to denote the maximum discharge that can be passed in a hydraulic structure without any damage or serious threat to the stability of the structure.
Spring is a natural discharge point where ground water issues from soil or rock in concentrated flow.
Channel in which accretion balances scour on the average.
The stage of a river is defined as its water surface elevation measured above a datum. This datum can be the mean sea level or any arbitrary datum connected independently to the mean sea level.
The stage data, often presented in the form of a plot of stage against chronological time is known as stage hydrograph. A plot of stage versus time.
The relationship between the stage in a river and the corresponding discharge at the particular section is represented in the form of a curve called Stage-discharge curve.
Widely used measure of dispersion of a frequency distribution or of a set of values.
Positive square root of the variance of the sampling distribution of a statistic.
STANDARD PROJECT FLOOD
The flood resulting from the most severe combinations of meteorological and hydrological conditions considered reasonably characteristic of the region. Extremely rare combination of factors are excluded.
STANDARD PROJECT STORM
The standard project storm estimate for a particular drainage area and season for year in which snow melt is not a major consideration should represent the most severe flood producing rainfall depth area duration relationship and isohyetal pattern of any storm that is considered reasonably characteristic of the region in ;which the drainage basin is located, giving consideration to the runoff characteristics and existence of water regulation structure in the basin.
STATION YEAR METHOD
This is a method of extending the length of record for a frequency curve at a station, based on the assumption that records for the same or different periods of records at a number of stations may be considered as a composite record for a single station for a period equal to the total number of years involved. For example, if 50 years of record is available for 100 stations, it might be assumed that this was equivalent to 5000, years at a single station.
Hydrological processes and phenomena which are described and analyzed by using the methods of probability theory.
It is that part of rainfall that, having been intercepted by the canopy, reaches the ground by running down the stems.
It is a system in which the various processes are dependent on chance as well as time. All the hydrologic data is, more or less, stochastic in nature.
It is a formation constant of an aquifer which represents the volume of water released by a column of confined aquifer of unit cross sectional area under a unit decrease of piezometric head normal to the area.
STORAGE TIME CONSTANT
It is a coefficient used in the Muskingum equation of channel routing. It is approximately equal to the time of travel of a flood wave through the channel reach. It has the dimensions of time.
It is a term commonly used for violent atmospheric motion, such as gale, thunderstorm, rainstorm, snowstorm or dust storm.
The interval of time from the beginning of a rain, through the rain period and the subsequent dry or rainless period to the beginning of the next subsequent rain period.
Procedure used to derive probable maximum precipitation.
It is that part of runoff which enters the stream immediately after the precipitation. It includes surface runoff, prompt interflow and channel precipitation. It is also called direct runoff.
A part of precipitation that in filters, more literally through upper crust of the soil and returns to the surface at some location away from the point of entry into the soil. This component of runoff is known variously as storm seepage or interflow or throughflow or storm flow.
The path traversed by the centre of the storm.
A natural channel for conveying water.
It is a classification of river basin reflecting the degree of branching or bifurcation within a basin. A first order stream has no tributary. A second order stream has two or more tributaries of the next lower order. A catchment is described as first, second or higher order depending on the stream order at the outlet.
It is movement of water under the force of gravity through well defined surface channel. It is the total runoff confined in stream channel.
Any flow below the surface of the ground which may contribute to interflow, base flow or deep percolation.
Also known as surface storage or initial detention, it refers to that part of precipitation which does not appear either as infiltration or as surface runoff during the period of infiltration or as surface runoff during the period of precipitation or immediately thereafter. Thus surface retention includes interception by vegetal cover, depression storage and evaporation during precipitation. It does not include water which is temporarily stored en route to the storm system.
The water which reaches the stream by travelling over the soil surface or falls directly into the stream channels.
SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY
That branch of hydrology which deals with hydrological phenomena and processes which occur on the Earth's surface, emphasizing overland flows.
Also known as base flow or fair weather flow, it is composed of ground water runoff and delayed subsurface runoff.
SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH
A unit hydrograph developed on the basis of estimation of coefficients expressing various physical features of a catchment.
These raingauges are of the recording type and contain electronic units to transmit the data on rainfall to the base station both at regular interval or on interrogation. The tipping bucket type raingauge, being ideally suited, is usually adopted for this purpose. Telemetering gauges are of utmost use in gathering rainfall data from mountainous and generally inaccessible places.
It is a device used for measuring soil water tension. It operates only up to about 0.85 atm. tension.
The points of location of rain gauges on a map are joined by straight lines and their perpendicular bisectors are drawn. The polygon formed around each raingauge station by these perpendiculars is called, after its originator, a Thiessen polygon.
Also known as interflow or storm seepage, it is that part of precipitation which after infiltration moves laterally through upper crusts of the soil and returns to the surface at some location away from the point of entry into the soil.
Time base of a hydrograph is considered to be the time from which the concentration curve begins until the direct runoff component essentially reaches zero.
The time taken by the runoff from the farthest point of the catchment to reach the point under consideration.
It is a bar plot of inter isochrone area Vs. time. If a rainfall excess of 1 cm occurs instantaneously and uniformly over the catchment area, this time area histogram represents the sequence in which the volume of rainfall will be moved out of the catchment and arrive at the outlet.
A rotary storm, one of the most violent type of storms known, of small diameter, which travels across the country and leaves great devastation along a narrow path. Its chief characteristics are
- Under a heavy cumulonimbus cloud there hangs a funnel shaped cloud, which marks the vertex and, as the storm moves along, may or may not touch the earth.
- Heavy precipitation and usually hail occur, with thunder. In addition to the thunder, there is a roar attending the tornado cloud when it touches the surface.
- The winds blow spirally upward around the axis of a tornado cloud.
- The speed of the storm itself in travelling over the earth is comparatively slow, 40 to 65 Km an hour, its path is short, averaging about 480 Km.
A stream of water flowing with great velocity or turbulence, as during a freshet or down a steep incline.
It is defined as the rate of flow through an aquifer of unit width and total saturation depth under unit hydraulic gradient. It is equal to product of full saturation depth of aquifer and its coefficient of permeability.
TRANSPOSITION OF STORM
It means application of a storm from one area to some other area within the same region of meteorological homogeneity. It requires the determination of whether the particular storm could have occurred in the area to which it is to be transposed.
TEMPERATURE LAPSE RATE
Decrease of the air temperature in degrees Celsius per 100 m of latitude increase.
Set of observations, in order, taken at successive points of time, commonly at a fixed interval.
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
Total weight of dissolved mineral constituents in water per unit volume (or weight) of water in the sample.
It is the ability of the reservoir to trap and retain sediment and is expressed as the percent of sediment yield, which is retained in the basin. It increases with the increase in the capacity of the reservoir but it decreases with outflow discharge increase.
Unidirectional, monotonous (diminishing or increasing) change in the average value of a hydrological variable.
Watercourse flowing into a larger watercourse or into a lake.
Also called cyclone in India, hurricane in U.S.A. and typhoon in south east Asia, it is a wind system with an intensely storm depression with msl pressures sometimes below 915 mbars. Normal and areal extent is about 100 200 Km in diameter. Isobars are closely spaced and winds are anti-clock wise in northern hemisphere. Rainfall is normally heavy in the entire area occupied by the cyclone.
The device, which estimates the discharge in a stream, depends for its operation upon the Doppler effect of ultrasonic waves passing through water. A transmitter directs a signal towards a receiver some distance upstream. The ultrasonic waves moving upstream are compressed, those returning are attenuated. The magnitude of this effect can be recorded and related to water velocity.
Also called non-artesian aquifer, it is a water bearing strata having no confined impermeable overburden. In this aquifer, water table varies in undulating form and in slope depending on areas of recharge, pumpage from wells and permeability.
Movement of water through a pervious stratum under the bed of a river.
Hydrograph of storm runoff at a given point on a given stream which will result from an isolated rainfall excess of unit duration occurring over the contributing drainage area and resulting in a unit of runoff.
UNIT RAINFALL DURATION
The duration of runoff producing rainfall or rainfall excess that results in a unit hydrograph.
That portion of the lithosphere in which the interstices are filled partly with air and partly with water, held or suspended by molecular forces.
Channel in which stage-discharge relation changes in the course of time.
In the direction opposite to the main current.
Flow in which, the velocity changes in magnitude or direction with respect to time.
It is defined as the interdisciplinary science of water and its interrelationships with urban man. It is the study of hydrological processes both within and outside the urban environment that are affected by urbanisation.
Water in the zone of aeration is called vadose water.
- The volume below the water surface profile.
- The natural storage capacity or volume occupied by a stream in flood after it has over flown its banks. It includes the channel storage and lateral storage.
It is the stream flow unaffected by artificial divergence, storage of other works of man in or on the stream channels or in the drainage basin or watershed.
The average rate of infiltration during the time the rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity.
A graduated rod to which a current meter is attached for measuring the velocity in shallow water. This rod measures the depth below water surface at which velocity is being measured.
The river stage at which it is necessary to begin issuing warnings of river forecasts to enable adequate precautionary measures to be taken to avoid damage or inconvenience due to flooding.
Mass of water distinct from other masses of water.
WATER BUDGET METHOD
It is an analytical method for the determination of evaporation. It is measurement of continuity of flow of water. This holds true for any time interval and applies to any drainage basin and to the earth as a whole. It involves writing the hydrological continuity equation for the reservoir and determining the evaporation from a knowledge or estimation of the variables.
Measures introduced to reduce the amount of water used for any purpose and/or to protect it from pollution.
WATER EQUIVALENT OF SNOW
It means depth of water which would result from melting of snow. It depends on the snow density as well as its depth.
Condition of land when the ground water stands at a level that is detrimental to plant growth, as a result of excessive irrigation coupled with inadequate drainage.
Supply of water in a given area or basin interpreted in terms of availability of surface and underground water.
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Planned development, distribution and use of water resources.
Water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation at atmospheric pressure. It is the level at which water stands in a well penetrating the unconfined aquifers.
Continuous twelve month period selected for maintaining or presenting records of flow, and/or use of water of any river system.
The terms drainage basin and watershed are often considered synonymous but strictly speaking, a watershed is the divide separating one drainage basin from another.
The geological formation under many drainage basins is such that precipitation falling on one basin finds its way underground through fissures and water bearing strata to an outlet either in a nearby or a remote drainage basin, or directly to the sea. This is called watershed leakage.
Management of watershed to conserve soil and water requires that the land be used within its capabilities and treated according to its need. The objectives are to protect the land against all forms of soil deterioration, to rebuild eroded and depleted soils, to build up soil fertility, to stabilise critical runoff and sediment producing areas, to improve grass lands, woodlands and wild life lands, to conserve water for beneficial use, to provide needed drainage and irrigation and to reduce flood land sediment drainage.
It is the wedge like volume formed between the actual water surface profile and the top surface of the prism storage. It is the difference between the total channel storage and the prism storage.
Fisher-Tippett Type III External distribution used usually in drought studies.
A water well is a hole or shaft, usually vertical, excavated in the earth for bringing ground water to the earth. Occasionally, wells serve other purposes such as subsurface exploration and observation, artificial recharge and disposal of waste waters.
It is the head loss caused by flow through the well screen and flow inside of the well to the pump intake.
Year in which precipitation or stream flow is significantly above normal.
The moisture content of the soil expressed as a percentage of the dry weight at the time when the leaves of a plant growing in the soil first undergo a permanent reduction in their moisture content, as a result of the deficiency in the soil moisture supply.
This is used for determining the stage of a river by lowering a weight to the water surface. It is mostly attached on the bridges and is read by means of a mechanical counter attached to the reel on which wire is wound.
Total volume or flow from a drainage basin for a long stipulated period of time, for example annual yield of drainage basin is the mean annual runoff.
ZERO MOISTURE INDEX
The index of moisture when the precipitation is just adequate to supply all the water that would be needed for maximum evaporation and transpiration in the course of a year.
That portion of lithosphere in which the interstices are filled partly with water which is held or suspended by molecular forces.
That part of lithosphere in which the pores are completely filled with water and pressure is at or above atmospheric.