West Flowing Rivers South of Tapi

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The total area of this region is 113,057 km2 which lies between longitudes 7243 E and 7735 E and latitudes 84 N and 2110 N. The basin is located in southern and western India and covers practically the whole of Kerala, Goa, Daman, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The state wise distribution of the drainage basin is given below: 

State

Drainage Area (km2 )

Tamil Nadu

4,694

Kerala

35,930

Karnataka

24,764

Goa

3,700

Maharashtra

32,806

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

490

Daman

65

Gujarat

10,608

Total

113,057

The region is bounded on the north by the ridge separating it from the Tapi basin, on the east by the Western Ghats, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The basin is highly irregular in shape and has a maximum length of 1,555 km in NW-SE direction and a maximum width of 125 km in NE-SW direction.

The basin is traversed by as many as 115 small and fairly big rivers, of which one in Tamil Nadu, 32 in Kerala, 10 in Karnataka, 3 in Goa, 11 in Maharashtra and 5 in Gujarat are important rivers. The list of 98 rivers, (45 rivers systems between Tapi to Tadri and 43 rivers systems from Tadri to Kanyakumari) along with the catchment area, rainfall and average annual flows are given below:

S. N.

Basin

Average Annual Rainfall (mm)

Catchment Area (km2)

Average-Annual Flow (Mm3)

Rivers System from Tapi to Tadri

1

Purna

1,521

2,322

1,587

2

Ambica

1,999

2,715

3,528

3

Damanganga

1,750

1,382

1,572

4

Auranga

2,200

172

246

5

Par

2,076

688

942

6

Varoli (Jogni)

2,200

238

340

7

Free catchment between Varoli and Vaitarna

2,000

805

1,047

8

Vaitarna

2,794

3,647

6,700

9

Ulhas

3,556

3,804

8,793

10

Free catchment between Ulhas & Parval

2,200

266

380

11

Parvel

2,962

803

1,546

12

Patalganga

3,366

940

2,056

13

Amba

3,050

740

1,467

14

Kundalika

3,143

825

1,685

15

MandaI Jansi

2,655

1,505

2,597

16

Savitri

3,493

2,889

6,558

17

Bharaja

3,473

383

639

18

Ilne

3,200

74

154

19

Jog

3,511

385

379

20

Vashishti

3,391

2,238

4,933

21

Free catchment between Vashiti & Shastri

3,000

225

439

22

Shastri

3,260

2,174

4,607

23

Free catchment between Shastri & Kajvi

2,900

279

526

24

Kajvi

2,550

762

1,263

25

Free catchment between Kajvi & Machkundi

3,000

94

183

26

Machkundi

2,150

833

1,164

27

Kodavali (Rajapur)

3,216

665

1,390

28

Vaghotan,

2,500

903

1,467

29

Kharda (Deogarh)

2,500

455

739

30

Piyali

3,000

86

168

31

Achra

3,207

297

619

32

Gad

2,600

891

1,506

33

Karli

2,750

753

1,346

34

Free catchment between Karli & Talwada

3,000

246

480

35

Talvada

3,225

137

287

36

Free catchment between Talwada & Terekhol

3,125

96

195

37

Terekhol

3,578

530

1,233

38

Chapora (Tillari)

3,578

530

1,233

39

Mandvi (Mahadayi)

3,134

2,032

4,139

40

Rachol

2,959

772

1,485

41

Sal

2,800

344

626

42

Free catchment between Sal & Kalinadi

2,900

446

841

43

Kalindi

2,436

4,188

6,631

44

Gangavali (Bedthi)

2,039

3,574

4,737

45

Agnashini (Tadri)

2,956

1,330

2,556

 

 

Sub-total

87,009

River Systems from Tadri to Kanyakumari

46

Sharavathy

3,169

3,592

7,399

47

Free catchment between Banduruholi & Sharavathy

 

 

 

48

Banduruholi

4,000

1,041

2,707

49

Free catchment between Banduruholi & Chakra

 

 

 

50

Chakra

4,082

336

892

51

Haladi (Varahi)

4,587

759

2,263

52

Sita

 

 

 

53

Free catchment between Swarna & Mulki

 

 

 

54

Mulki

3,800

3,067

7,576

55

Free catchment between Mulki &  Gurpur

 

 

 

56

Gurpur

 

 

 

57

Netravathy

5,363

3,222

12,813

58

Manjeshwar

3,600

90

210

59

Uppala

3,600

250

585

60

Shiruja

3,800

587

1,450

61

Morgal

3,800

132

326

62

Chandragiri

3,809

1,406

3,481

63

Chittari

3,600

145

339

64

Nileswar

3,700

190

457

65

Kariangode

4,000

561

1,459

66

Kaviyi

3,600

143

335

67

Peruvamba

3,700

300

722

68

Ramapuram

3,600

52

122

69

Kuppam

3,900

539

1,366

70

Vallapattanam

3,735

1,867

4,533

71

Anjarakadi

4,000

412

1,071

72

Tellicherry

3,900

132

335

73

Maha

4,000

394

1,024

74

Kuttiadi

3,900

588

1,478

75

Korapuzha

3,800

624

1,541

76

Kallai

3,200

96

200

77

Chaliyar

3,201

2,923

6,082

78

Kadalundi

3,201

1,122

2,335

79

Terurpuzha

2,800

117

213

80

Bharatapuzha

2,276

6,186

7,054

81

Keechari

2,800

401

730

82

Puzhalkal

2,800

234

426

83

Karuvannur

2,800

1,054

1,900

84

Chalakudy

4,290

1,704

3,277

85

Periyar

2,919

5,398

12,210

86

Moovattupuzha

3,385

2,004

4,409

87

Meenachil

3,400

1,272

2,811

88

Manimala

3,800

847

2,092

89

Pamba

3,600

2,235

5,230

90

Achenkoil

2,600

1,484

2,793

91

Pallickal

2,800

220

400

92

Kallada

2,800

1,699

3,092

93

Ithikkara

2,600

642

1,085

94

Ayroor

2,300

66

99

95

Vamanapuram

2,400

687

1,072

96

Mamom

2,000

114

148

97

Karamana

2,000

703

914

98

Neyyar

2,000

497

646

 

 

Sub-total

113,702

 

Total

200,711

 

 

Water Resources Projects in West flowing Rivers South of Tapi

Tillari

Tillari is a masonry dam on Tillari River, 19 km from Chandgad in Kolhapur District, Maharashtra. The catchment area at the dam is 47.59 km2. The height and length of the dam are 38 m and 485 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 113.24 MCM at FRL 750.2 m and the MDDL is at 737 m. With one unit of 60 MW, Tillari power house has a firm power of 16 MW. MSEB commissioned the project in 1986.

 

Bhivpuri

Bhivpuri hydropower project is located on Thokarwadi Rubble masonry gravity dam on Andhra River, a tributary of Indarayni River, 18 km from Karjat, in Raigad District, Maharashtra. The corresponding reservoir is known as Andhra Lake. The catchment area at the dam is 124 km2. The height and length of the dam is 58 m and 571 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 325.64 MCM at FRL 668 m. Initially, the power house had the installed capacity of 48 MW, which was uprated to 6 units of 12 MW each in 1961. In 1998-99 the old plant was replaced with 3 units of 24 MW each. The project has a firm power of 32.5 MW and mean annual inflow of 247.32 MCM.

 

Bhira and Bhira Pumped Storage projects

These projects are located on Mulshi rubble masonry dam on Mula and Neela Rivers. These projects are located at a distance of 30 km and 27 km respectively from Kolad, in Raigad District, Maharashtra. The catchment area at the dam is 247.6 km2. The height of the Mulshi dam is 47 m. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 522.76 MCM at FRL 607 m and the MDDL is at 590 m. Former power project has 6 units of 25 MW each whereas the later has a single unit of 150 MW. The Bhira hydropower project has a firm power of 86 MW with mean annual inflow of 685 MCM.

 

Bhira Tail Race Project

One more power house has been constructed to utilize the tail water of Bhira power house and Kundlika River, known as Bhira tail race. This power house is located 32 km from Mangaon, in Raigad District, Maharashtra. The catchment area at the dam is 245 km2. The power house has 2 units of 40 MW each and has a firm power of 21 MW with mean annual inflow of 608 MCM.

 

Vaitarna

Vaitarna hydropower project is located near Vaitarna and Alwandi masonry and earthen dam on Vaitarna and Alwandi Rivers, 30 km from Ghoti, in Nashik District, Maharashtra. The catchment area at the dam is 160.8 km2. The height and length of the dam is 47 m and 555 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 35 MCM at FRL 603.5 m and the MDDL is at 580 m. The power house has a unit of 60 MW. It has a firm power of 11 MW with mean annual inflow of 635 MCM. MSEB commissioned the project in 1976.

 

Kalinadi

Kalinadi Hydropower station utilizes water from the Bommanhalli masonry gravity dam constructed on Kalinadi River. The power house is located at a distance of 4 km from Dandeli in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka. The catchment area at the power house is 636 km2. The height and length of the dam are 28.96 m and 1,025 m respectively. At FRL 438.38 m, the reservoir has a live storage capacity of 83.90 MCM.  Kalinadi power house has 6 units of 135 MW each. It has a firm power of 341 MW with a mean annual inflow of 735 MCM. KPCL commissioned the project in 1979-84.

 

Kadra

Kadra is a masonry gravity and earth dam on Kalinadi River located a distance of 35 km from Karwar in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka. The catchment area at the dam is 432 km2. The height of the dam is 40.50 m. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 209 MCM at FRL 34.5 m and the MDDL is at 27 m. Kadra power house has 3 units of 50 MW each, producing a firm power of 40 MW. KPCL commissioned the project in 1997-99.

 

Kodasalli

Kodasalli is a 49 m high concrete gravity earth dam on Kalinadi River located a distance of 70 km from Karwar in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka. The catchment area at the dam is 1,049 km2. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 178.82 MCM at FRL 75.5 m and the MDDL is at 62.5 m. Kodasalli power house has 3 units of 40 MW each and a firm power of 38 MW. It was commissioned in 1998-99.

 

Pykara Singara

Pykara Singara hydropower project on Glenmorgan masonry & gravity dam on Pykara and Mukurthy Rivers, located at a distance of 36 km from Udhagamandalam in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu. The height and length of the dam is 29 m and 250.6 m respectively. At FRL 1972.56 m, the reservoir has a live storage capacity of 6.113 MCM. Pykara Singara power house has 3 units of 6.65 MW each, 2 units of 11 MW each, and 2 units of 14 MW each with a total installed capacity of 70 MW. It has a firm power of 46 MW. TNEB commissioned the project in 1932-54.

 

Kadamparai

Kadamparai is a masonry gravity and earth dam on Kadamparai River, tributary of Aliyar River, located near Pollachi in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. The catchment area at the dam is 83 km2. The height of the dam is 63.5 m. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 27 MCM at FRL 1,149 m and the MDDL is at 1,112 m. Kadamparai power house has 4 units of 100 MW each. It has a firm power of 10 MW. TNEB commissioned the project in 1987-88.

 

Sabarigiri

Sabarigiri hydroelectric station is located on the Kakki concrete gravity dam constructed on Pambas and Kakki Rivers. The power house is located 72 km from Pathanamthitta in Quilon District, Kerala. The catchment area at the power house is 316 km2. The height and length of the dam is 110 m and 336 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 446.5 MCM at FRL 981 m and the MDDL is at 908 m.  It has 6 units of 50 MW each with a mean annual inflow of 824 MCM. It has a firm power of 139 MW. Kerala State electricity Board commissioned the project in 1966-67.

 

Kakkad

Kakkad hydroelectric station has two concrete gravity dams, namely Moozhiyar and Veluthodu, constructed on the rivers with the same names. Moozhiyar and Veluthodu streams are the tributaries of Pamba River. The power house is located in Pathanamthitta District, Kerala. The catchment area at the power house is 358.5 km2 and the mean annual inflow is 77.59 MCM. The length of both dams is 192 m. It has 2 units of 25 MW each with a firm power of 29 MW. Kerala State electricity Board commissioned the project in 1999.

 

Supa Dam

Supa is a concrete gravity dam on Kalinadi River located 22 km from Karwar in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka. Supa dam is the main storage for the Kalinadi Hydroelectric project in Karnataka. It is a 101 m high concrete gravity dam. This dam creates main storage reservoir for the entire project with a total capacity of 4,300 Mm3. The catchment area at the dam is 1,057 km2 and its height is 101 m. The length of the dam of 322 m which is divided in 20 wedge-shaped blocks to suit the geology of the terrain and to facilitate speedier construction. The water impounded in Supa reservoir is being utilized for power generation at Nagajhari Power house which has 2 units of 50 MW each. It has a firm power of 54 MW with mean annual inflow of 3,393 MCM.

 

Varahi Project

Varahi project consists of a hydropower station near the Hulical earth dam constructed on Varahi River. The power house is located 35 km from Kundapur in Udupi District, Karnataka. The catchment area at the dam is 214 km2. The height and length of the dam are 35.9 m and 660 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 15 MCM at FRL 564 m.  It has 2 units of 115 MW each with a mean annual inflow of 198 MCM. It has a firm power of 121 MW. KPCL commissioned the project in 1989-90.

 

Idamalayar

Idamalayar is a concrete gravity dam on Idamalayar River, tributary of Periyar River, 81 km from Ernakulam in Ernakulam District, Kerala. The catchment area at the dam is 381 km2. The height and length of the dam is 91 m and 373 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 1,018 MCM at FRL 169 m and the MDDL is at 115 m. Idamalayar power house has 2 units of 37.5 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 1,370 MCM. It has a firm power of 37 MW.  KSEB commissioned the project in 1987.

 

Linganamakki

Linganamakki is a masonry gravity earth dam on Sharavathy River, 35 km from Sagar, in Shimoga District, Karnataka, completed in 1964. The dam is located at 14 41 24 N latitude and 74 50 54 E longitude and has a catchment area of 1,992 km2. The height and length of the dam is 61.28 m and 2,749 m respectively. Very high rainfall is received in the catchment of this dam; the recorded maximum rainfall is 8,150 mm. In addition, inflow is also received from Chakra and Savahaklu reservoirs which are linked with Linganamakki through a canal. Linganamakki reservoir has a live storage capacity of 4,276 MCM; its maximum water level is 555.04 m, FRL is at 554.43 m, and the MDDL is at 522.73 m. It has caused submergence of an area of 326 sq. km. Eleven radial gates of 15.24 m 7.31 m have been provided at the spillway, the design flood peak being 8,070 cumec. >From Linganamakki, water flows through a channel to the Talakalale balancing reservoir.

 

The power house at the site is known as Mahatma Gandhi (Jog Falls) power house. It has 4 units of 12 MW each and 4 units of 18 MW each with a total installed capacity of 120 MW.

 

Sharavathy

Sharvathy hydroelectric station has been constructed near the Talakalake masonry gravity dam constructed on Sharvathy River. The power house uses the tail water of Linganamakki Dam constructed on Sharvathy River. The project is located at a distance of 30 km from Sagar, in Shimoga District, Karnataka. The catchment area at the dam is 46 km2. The height and length of the dam is 62.5 m and 353.6 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 54 MCM at FRL 516.64 m and the MDDL is at 515.11 m.  It has 10 units of 89.1 MW each. It has a firm power of 545 MW.

 

Aliyar

Upper Aliyar is a masonry gravity dam on Aliyar River, 35 km from Pollachi, in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. The catchment area at the dam is 121 km2. The height and length of the dam is 81 m and 316 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 25.91 MCM at FRL 770 m and the MDDL is at 730 m. The power house has a single unit of 60 MW each. It has a firm power of 12 MW with mean annual flow of 55 MCM.  TNEB commissioned the project in 1970.

 

Idukki

Idukki is a concrete arch gravity dam on Periyar Cheruthoni and Killivally rivers, located at a distance of 25 km from Thodupuzha in Idukki District, Kerala. The catchment area at the dam is 649 km2. The height and length of the dam is 169 m and 366 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 1,459.7 MCM at FRL 732.62 m and the MDDL is at 694.94 m. Idukki power house has 6 units of 130 MW each. It has a firm power of 230 MW with mean annual inflow of 1,360 MCM.

 

The Cherthono tributary is dammed by a concrete gravity dam, about 135.7 m high and 651 m long. This dam was completed in 1976. 

 

Kodayar

Kodayar is masonry gravity dam on Kodayar River, located at a distance of 25 km from Kulasekharan in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. The catchment area at the dam is 29 km2. The corresponding reservoir is known as Upper Kodayar. The height and length of the dam is 88 m and 181 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 73 MCM at FRL 1,326 m and the MDDL is at 1,296 m. Kodayar power house has a single units of 60 MW each. It has a firm power of 26 MW with mean annual inflow of 75 MCM.

 

Sholayar

Sholayar is a masonry gravity dam on Sholayar River, 65 km from Chalakudy in Trichur District, Kerala. The catchment area at the dam is 186.5 km2. The height and length of the dam is 58 m and 431 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 149.2 MCM at FRL 812.68 m and the MDDL is at 779 m. Sholayar power house has 3 units of 18 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 1,710 MCM. It has a firm power of 27 MW. KSEB commissioned the project in 1966-68. 

 

Sholayar I

Sholayar I Hydro electric project is located near Sholayar masonry & earthen dam on Sholayar River, 25 km from Valparai and 90 km from Pollachi in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. The catchment area at the dam is 120.32 km2. The height and length of the dam is 105 m and 3,622 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 138 MCM at FRL 1,003 m and the MDDL is at 960 m. Sholayar I power house has 2 units of 35 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 1,034 MCM. It has a firm power of 28 MW. TNEB commissioned the project in 1971.

 

Kuttiyadi

Kuttiyadi is a masonry gravity dam on Kuttiyadi River, 55 km from Kozhikode in Kozhikode District, Kerala. The catchment area at the dam is 39 km2. The height and length of the dam is 40 m and 229 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 29.6 MCM at FRL 758.04 m and the MDDL is at 737.62 m. Kuttiyadi power house has 3 units of 25 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 205.30 MCM. It has a firm power of 28 MW. KSEB commissioned the project in 1972.

 

Hydropower Potential in the Basin

The hydroelectric potential of the West flowing Rivers basin has been assessed 9430 MW. Out of the identified schemes in the basin, schemes with a total installed capacity of 5660 MW are in operation as on 31.7.2014 and schemes with an installed capacity of about 100 MW are in various stages of construction. ( Source: www.cea.nic.in )