Home Temperature Variation in India Go Back

Similar to precipitation, temperature also experiences marked variations over the Indian sub-continent. During the winter season from November to February, the temperature decreases from South to North due to the effect of continental winds over most of the country. The mean maximum temperature during the coldest months of December and January varies from 29C in some parts of the peninsula to about 18C in the North, whereas the mean minimum varies from about 24C in the extreme South to below 5C in the North. In higher Himalayan zones, temperature remains in sub-zero ranges for many months. The period from March to May is the time of continuous rise of temperature. The highest temperature in May and June in North India, particularly in the desert regions of the northwest may exceed 48C. Temperature of similar order can be expected in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. With the advent of southwest monsoon in June, there is a rapid fall in the maximum temperature all over the country, particularly in the central portions of the country. The temperature is almost uniform over the area covering two-thirds of the country, which gets good rains. From late September onwards, there is a fall in temperature when the monsoon retreats from North India. In northwest India, the mean maximum temperature is below 38C and the mean minimum below 10C in the month of November. In the extreme North, temperature drops below freezing point in winter months.

 

The country has a reasonably good network of temperature recording stations which give a representative good picture of the variation of temperature in space and time. IMD has a network of 560 surface observatories where temperature is measured. The climatological tables of observatories in India (1931-60) issued by the India Meteorological Department contain normals of maximum and minimum annual temperature.

 

Mean Temperature Maps of

Mean Plot (1901-2000) 

Jan 

April 

July

October

(Source : www.imd.gov.in)

Minimum/Maximum Temperatures of Major Cities in India.

City

Elevation

Max/Min

 Jan

 Feb

Mar  

Apr

 May

Jun

 Jul   

Aug

 Sep

 Oct  

 Nov

 Dec

Mount Abu

1,219 m

Max

19.3

21.2

25.3

29.4

31.5

29.1

24.3

22.5

24.1

26.6

24.1

21.2

 

 

Min

 9.3

11.5

15.9

20.0

22.3

20.5

19.3

18.3

18.4

17.4

13.5

11.2

Agra

169 m

Max

22.2

25.7

31.9

37.7

41.8

40.5

34.8

32.8

33.2

33.3

29.2

24.1

 

 

Min

7.4

10.3

15.7

21.6

27.2

29.5

27.0

25.8

24.6

19.1

12.0

8.2

Ahmedabad

56 m

Max

28.7

31.0

35.7

39.7

40.7

38.0

33.2

31.8

33.1

35.6

33.0

29.6

 

 

Min

11.9

14.5

18.6

23.0

26.3

27.4

25.7

24.6

24.2

21.2

16.1

12.6

Aurangabad

579 m

Max

29.3

31.8

35.6

38.3

39.8

34.7

29.5

29.2

29.8

31.6

30.3

28.9

 

 

Min

14.3

16.1

20.1

23.8

25.0

23.2

21.8

21.2

20.9

19.6

16.1

13.8

Bangalore

921 m

Max

26.9

29.7

32.3

33.4

32.7

28.9

27.2

27.3

27.6

27.5

26.3

25.7

 

 

Min

15.0

16.5

19.0

21.2

21.1

19.7

19.2

19.2

18.9

18.9

17.2

15.3

Bhopal

501 m

Max

25.7

28.5

33.6

37.8

40.7

36.9

29.9

28.6

30.1

31.3

28.5

26.1

 

 

Min

10.4

12.5

17.1

21.2

26.4

25.4

23.2

22.5

21.9

18.0

13.3

10.6

Bodhgaya

113 m

Max

24.2

27.0

33.7

39.0

41.3

38.6

33.5

32.4

32.6

31.2

28.5

25.1

 

 

Min

10.1

12.2

17.4

23.0

27.4

28.2

26.3

25.9

25.6

21.7

14.1

9.9

Bombay

11 m

Max

29.1

29.5

31.0

32.3

33.3

31.9

29.8

29.5

30.1

31.9

32.3

30.9

 

 

Min

19.4

20.3

22.7

25.1

26.9

26.3

25.1

24.8

24.7

24.6

22.8

20.8

Calcutta

64 m

Max

26.8

29.5

34.3

36.3

35.8

34.1

32.0

32.0

32.3

31.8

29.5

27.0

 

 

Min

13.6

16.5

21.5

25.0

26.5

26.7

26.3

26.3

26.1

23.9

18.4

14.2

Cherrapunji

131 m

Max

15.8

16.9

20.5

22.0

22.1

22.9

22.2

22.5

22.9

22.4

19.7

17.0

 

 

Min

7.6

10.5

12.9

15.1

16.3

17.3

18.4

18.4

18.1

15.9

11.9

8.8

Cochin

Sea-level

Max

30.6

30.7

31.3

31.4

30.9

29.0

28.1

28.1

28.3

29.2

29.8

30.3

 

 

Min

23.2

24.3

25.8

26.0

25.7

24.1

23.7

24.0

24.2

24.2

24.1

23.5

Darjeeling

2,134 m

Max

9.3

11.1

14.8

18.0

18.6

19.3

19.8

19.8

19.9

18.6

15.3

11.9

 

 

Min

3.0

4.3

7.7

10.8

12.9

14.7

15.4

15.4

14.6

11.5

7.4

4.4

Dehradun

682 m

Max

19.1

21.4

26.4

32.1

36.2

35.3

30.4

29.5

29.6

28.2

24.7

20.9

 

 

Min

6.1

8.2

12.4

17.0

21.5

23.6

23.1

22.7

21.3

16.1

10.3

7.0

Guwahati

55 m

Max

23.4

26.7

30.0

31.9

31.1

31.2

31.7

32.1

31.7

30.1

27.5

24.8

 

 

Min

9.8

11.6

16.0

20.1

22.8

24.9

25.7

25.8

24.7

22.1

17.3

11.9

Goa

1.022 m

Max

31.5

31.8

31.8

32.8

32.8

30.5

28.9

29.1

29.4

31.1

32.8

32.7

 

 

Min

19.4

16.7

23.1

25.2

26.8

24.5

23.9

24.0

23.6

23.4

22.3

21.0

Hyderabad

542 m

Max

28.6

31.2

34.8

36.9

38.7

34.1

29.8

29.5

29.7

30.3

28.7

27.8

 

 

Min

14.6

16.7

20.0

23.7

26.2

24.1

22.3

22.1

21.6

19.8

16.0

13.4

Indore

564 m

Max

26.0

28.9

33.7

37.7

39.9

35.7

29.5

28.2

29.3

31.1

28.8

26.5

 

 

Min

9.6

11.0

15.3

20.4

24.8

24.4

22.6

22.0

21.0

17.2

12.1

 9.9

Jaipur

431 m

Max

22.0

25.4

31.0

36.5

40.6

39.2

34.1

31.9

33.2

33.2

29.4

24.4

 

 

Min

8.3

10.7

15.5

21.0

25.8

27.3

25.6

24.3

23.0

18.3

12.0

9.0

Jaisalmer

225 m

Max

23.6

28.2

32.6

37.8

41.6

41.4

37.7

35.9

36.3

36.1

31.1

26.0

 

 

Min

7.9

10.6

16.9

21.4

25.8

27.3

26.5

25.5

24.5

20.1

13.0

8.9

Jodhpur

221 m

Max

24.6

27.9

33.3

38.3

41.6

40.1

35.7

33.2

34.7

35.7

31.4

26.7

 

 

Min

9.5

12.0

17.1

22.4

27.3

28.5

26.8

25.2

24.1

19.6

13.9

10.7

Kargil

3,048 m

Max

-4.2

-1.6

4.7

14.0

21.6

25.7

29.7

28.9

24.9

18.5

10.4

1.2

 

 

Min

-13.3

-12.1

-5.3

3.4

9.4

13.4

17.7

17.2

12.5

15.4

-1.3

-7.9

Leh

3,170 m

Max

-2.8

0.8

6.4

12.4

17.1

21.1

24.7

24.4

20.9

14.2

7.8

1.6

 

 

Min

-14.0

-11.8

-6.3

-1.2

2.8

6.7

10.2

9.6

5.4

-0.9

-6.6

-11.1

Lucknow

120 m

Max

23.3

26.4

32.9

38.3

41.2

39.3

33.6

32.5

33.0

32.8

29.3

24.8

 

 

Min

8.9

11.5

16.3

21.8

26.5

28.0

26.6

26.0

25.1

19.8

12.7

9.1

Madras

26 m

Max

28.8

30.6

32.7

34.9

37.6

37.3

35.2

34.5

33.9

31.8

29.2

28.2

 

 

Min

20.3

21.1

23.1

26.0

27.8

27.6

26.3

25.8

25.4

24.4

22.5

21.0

Madurai

107 m

Max

30.2

32.4

35.0

36.3

37.5

36.7

35.7

35.3

35.0

33.0

30.6

29.7

 

 

Min

20.9

21.6

23.4

25.4

26.3

26.3

25.7

25.2

24.8

24.0

23.0

21.6

Mussorie

2,006 m

Max

10.1

11.9

16.2

21,0

24.8

24.0

20.8

20.2

20.0

18.7

15.8

12.7

 

 

Min

2.5

3.7

7.2

11.8

15.0

16.4

16.0

15.5

14.3

11.1

7.4

4.3

Mysore

767 m

Max

28.3

31.2

33.5

34.0

32.6

29.0

27.3

27.9

28.7

28.4

27.4

27.0

 

 

Min

16.4

18.2

20.2

21.4

21.2

20.2

19.7

19.6

19.3

19.6

18.3

16.5

Nagpur

311 m

Max

28.6

32.5

36.4

39.7

42.8

38.4

31.2

30.4

31.5

31.9

30.0

28.7

 

 

Min

12.7

15.1

19.1

23.9

28.4

26.9

24.0

23.7

23.1

21.0

14.1

12.1

New Delhi

239 m

Max

21.3

23.6

30.2

36.2

40.5

39.9

35.3

33.7

34.0

33.1

28.7

23.4

 

 

Min

7.3

10.0

15.1

21.0

26.6

28.7

27.2

26.0

24.6

18.7

11.8

8.0

Ootacamund

2,286 m

Max

19.9

20.6

21.9

22.0

21.8

18.0

16.4

17.3

18.2

18.7

18.9

19.7

 

 

Min

5.0

6.3

8.4

10.2

11.2

11.0

10.9

10.9

10.4

10.0

8.3

6.3

Patna

53 m

Max

23.6

26.3

32.9

37.6

38.9

36.7

32.9

32.0

32.3

31.9

28.9

24.9

 

 

Min

11.0

13.4

18.6

23.3

26.0

27.0

26.7

26.6

26.3

23.0

16.0

11.7

Pune

559 m

Max

30.7

32.9

36.0

37.9

37.9

32.0

27.8

27.7

29.2

31.8

30.8

30.1

 

 

Min

12.0

13.3

16.8

20.6

22.6

23.0

22.0

21.5

20.8

19.3

15.0

12.0

Puri

6 m

Max

27.0

28.3

30.0

30.7

31.6

31.7

30.6

31.0

31.4

31.2

29.3

27.2

 

 

Min

18.0

20.8

24.6

26.6

27.7

27.4

26.7

26.8

26.6

25.0

20.8

17.7

Shillong

1,496 m

Max

15.5

17.0

21.5

23.8

23.7

23.7

24.0

24.1

23.6

21.8

18.9

16.4

 

 

Min

3.6

6.4

10.5

14.0

15.5

17.4

18.0

17.8

16.6

13.0

7.7

4.5

Shimla

2,205 m

Max

8.5

10.3

14.4

19.2

23.4

24.3

21.0

20.1

20.0

18.0

15.0

11.3

 

 

Min

2.0

3.1

6.8

11.2

15.0

16.2

15.6

15.2

13.8

10.8

7.3

4.2

Srinagar

1,768 m

Max

4.4

7.9

13.4

19.3

24.6

29.0

30.8

30.0

28.3

22.6

15.5

8.8

 

 

Min

-2.3

-0.8

3.5

7.4

11.2

14.4

18.4

17.9

12.7

5.7

-0.1

-1.8

Tiruchirapalli

78 m

Max

30.1

32.7

35.1

36.7

37.1

36.4

35.5

35.0

34.2

32.3

29.9

29.3

 

 

Min

20.6

21.3

22.9

25.8

26.4

26.5

25.9

25.4

25.0

24.0

22.7

21.3

Trivandrum

61 m

Max

31.3

31.7

32.5

32.4

31.6

29.4

29.1

29.4

29.9

29.9

30.1

30.9

 

 

Min

22.3

22.9

24.2

25.1

25.0

23.6

23.2

23.3

23.3

23.4

23.1

22.5

Udaipur

577 m

Max

24.2

27.6

32.3

36.0

38.6

35.9

30.7

29.3

30.9

32.0

29.1

26.3

 

 

Min

7.8

 9.7

15.1

20.2

24.9

25.3

23.9

22.9

22.1

18.9

11.0

8.3

Varanasi

81 m

Max

23.4

26.6

33.4

38.6

41.5

39.1

33.5

32.2

32.7

32.5

28.6

24.4

 

 

Min

 9.5

12.0

17.2

22.4

27.0

28.3

26.5

26.0

25.5

20.7

13.4

9.7

Source: IMD (1981).

 

India mean series map indicates seasonal and annual surface air temperature, along with the trend line, based on data during 1901-2000 for a network of 34 stations. The time series indicates warming of 0.3 C/100 years in the mean annual temperature of the country as a whole. It can be seen that the past 1940, the cooling reported for the Northern Hemisphere is conspicuously absent in the Indian temperature data. It can also be seen that the warming in the mean annual temperature is mainly contributed by the post-monsoon and winter seasons. The monsoon temperatures donot show a significant trend on an all-India scale. (Source : IITM)  

 

As the maps of extreme temperatures are based on the data of 60 years or more, they could also be regarded as the highest, and lowest temperatures likely to be recorded. These maps and data should be adequate for getting a general picture of range and the distribution of temperatures in the country.