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Hydropower Potential in India

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The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) undertook reassessment of the hydropower resources of the country in 1980s. In this survey, theoretical and the economic hydro potential of the rivers was worked out. The potential was assessed by identifying specific suitable sites and water availability corresponding to a 90% dependable year. CEA had identified 845 economically feasible schemes in various river basin of the country.  The firm energy was converted into hydroelectric potential by applying a suitable system load factor.  On this basis, the total theoretical potential at 60% load factor was assessed as 301,117 MW and the economic potential at 84,044 MW. 

 

Basin-Wise of Hydroelectric Potential of Indian River System

S.No.

 

Name of River

 

Number of Schemes

 

Firm Potential (MW)

 

Potential (MW) at 60% LF

Needed IC (MW)

 

Economic Potential

Theoretical Potential

1.

Great Indus

190 (including 23 storage)

11,992.8

19,988

50,172

33,832

2.

Great Brahmaputra

226 (including 76 storage)

23,951.9

34,920

146,170

66,065

3.

Ganga

142 (including 35 storage)

3,409.0

10,715

 

20,711

4.

West flowing river of South India

94

3,689.4

6,149

9,437

9,430

5.

East flowing rivers of South India

140

5,719.0

9,532

26,972

14,511

6.

Central Indian river system

53

1,664.2

2,740

14,888

4,152

Total

845

50,426.3

84,044

301,117

148,701

 

 

Hydropower Projects 

A project with capacity of 130 kW installed at Sidrapong (Darjeeling) in the year 1897 was the first hydropower installation in India. A few old installations, e.g., Shiva Samundram in Mysore (2,000 kW), Chamba (40 kW) in 1902, Gagoi in Mussoorie (3,000 kW) in 1907, Jubbal (50 kW) in 1911, Chhaba (1,750 kW) in Shimla in 1913, are the known hydro-power stations that are still working. Energy from these plants was primarily used for domestic needs in adjacent towns.

 

The Gagoi Power House that Lt. Col. W.W. Bell had built near Mussoorie was to provide electricity and to pump water upward to Mussoorie town. It was for the first time that water was pumped to a height of 516 m (the highest in Asia at that time). The water was pumped from Murray springs below Mussoorie town. In the early 20th century, the princely State of Mysore established a major hydro development – the Shiva Samudaram powerhouse – on Cauvery River with initial capacity of 7.92 MW. The capacity of this powerhouse was increased to 47 MW by 1938. Initially power was supplied to Kolar Gold fields for mining development and operations and later to Bangalore and Mysore cities too. Mysore's second development was in 1940, the Shimsapura hydro power station (2 × 8.6 MW) again on Cauvery River.

 

In northern India, 4 MW Mohora hydropower station on Jhelum River in the year in 1905 was the first major hydro development in the then princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. A major contribution to hydropower development was made by the Tata industrial group who successfully established three major hydropower plants in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra: 40 MW Khopoli (5×8 MW) in 1915, 48 MW Bhivpuri (4×12 MW) during 1922-25, and 90 MW Bhira (5×18 MW) in 1927.

 

In 1932, two major hydropower projects, namely 48 MW Joginder Nagar station (Himachal Pradesh), and 14 MW Pykara hydro plants were taken up and completed by the then provincial governments of Punjab and Madras, respectively. Further notable developments in Madras state were Mettur dam hydro station (40 MW) in 1937 and Papanasam (14 MW initial) in 1944. Travancore-Cochin princely state (now in Kerala) and United Provinces (now Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh) also carried out some significant hydro developments namely the Pallivassal hydro station (with 15 MW initial capacity), and a series of hydro stations on Ganga canal, respectively. With the development of high voltage transmission lines in the early twentieth century, a shift occurred from small hydro plants serving local electricity markets to large plants feeding into distribution grids. 

 

At the time of independence (1947), the IC of hydropower projects was 508 MW, which was about 37% of the total IC at that time. But with the taking up of five-year plans, work began on many multi-purpose river valley projects, the so called ‘temples of modern India’. Bhakra dam was the notable showcase for a long time to come. At the end of 1998, the installed hydropower capacity was about 22,000 MW which was 24.85 % (lowest % so far) of the total IC of 88,543 MW.  In the year 1962-63, the hydro: thermal ratio was the maximum at 50.62 However, over the years, the share of hydropower has continuously come down. It may be noted that a thermal-hydro mix in the ratio of 60:40 is considered as ideal.

 

Hydropower Stations in Operation (IC of 50 MW and Above)

Name of Station

Name of River

State

IC (MW)

Year Commissioned

Lower Jhelum

Jhelum

Jammu & Kashmir

105

1978-79

Salal

Chenab

Jammu & Kashmir

690

1987-95

Uri

Jhelum

Jammu & Kashmir

480

1996-97

Upper Sindh II

Sindh nallah

Jammu & Kashmir

105

2000-01

Shanan

Uhi

Himachal Pradesh

110

1932-82

Bhakra LB

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

540

1960-61

Bhakra RB

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

660

1966-68

Bassi

Uhi

Himachal Pradesh

60

1970-81

Dehar

Beas

Himachal Pradesh

990

1977-78

Giri

Giri

Himachal Pradesh

60

1978

Pong

Beas

Himachal Pradesh

360

1978-83

Baira Siul

Baira/Siul

Himachal Pradesh

180

1980-81

Sanjay Bhaba

Bhabha Khad

Himachal Pradesh

120

1989

Chamera I

Ravi

Himachal Pradesh

540

1994

Malana

Malana

Himachal Pradesh

86

2001

Baspa II

Baspa

Himachal Pradesh

300

2003

Nathpa Jhakri

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

1500

2003-04

Ganguwal & Kotla

Sutlej

Punjab

155

1955-62

UBDC

Ravi

Punjab

91

1971-91

Mukerian

Beas

Punjab

207

1983-89

Anandpur Sahib

Sutlej

Punjab

134

1985

Ranjit Sagar

Ravi

Punjab

600

2000

Rana Pratap Sagar

Chambal

Rajasthan

172

1958-69

Jawahar Sagar

Chambal

Rajasthan

99

1972-73

Mahi I

Mahi

Rajasthan

50

1986

Mahi II

Mahi

Rajasthan

90

1989

Dhalipur

Yamuna

Uttaranchal

51

1965-70

Chibro

Tons

Uttaranchal

240

1975-76

Ramganga

Ramganga

Uttaranchal

198

1975-77

Chilla

Ganga

Uttaranchal

144

1980-81

Khodri

Tons

Uttaranchal

120

1984

Maneri Bhali I

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal

90

1984

Tanakpur

Sarda

Uttaranchal

120

1992

Rihand

Rihand

Uttar Pradesh

300

1962-66

Obra

Rihand

Uttar Pradesh

99

1970

Khara

Ashan

Uttar Pradesh

72

1992

Gandhisagar

Chambal

Madhya Pradesh

115

1960-66

Bargi

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

90

1986-88

Bansagar Tons I

Tons

Madhya Pradesh

315

1991-92

Bansagar Tons III

Sone

Madhya Pradesh

60

2001

Hasdeo Bango

Hasdeo

Chhatisgarh

120

1994-95

Ukai

Tapi

Gujarat

300

1974-76

Kadana

Mahi

Gujarat

240

1990-96

Khopoli

Ganga

Maharashtra

72

2001-03

Bhivpuri

Andhra

Maharashtra

72

1998-99

Bhira

Mula  & Neela

Maharashtra

150

1927-51

Koyna I & II

Koyna

Maharashtra

560

1962-67

Koyna III

Koyna

Maharashtra

320

1975-78

Vaitarna

Vaitarna & Aliwandi

Maharashtra

60

1976

Pench

Pench

Maharashtra

160

1986

Tillari

Tillari

Maharashtra

60

1987

Bhira Tail race

Bhira & Kundlika

Maharashtra

80

1987-88

Bhira PS

Mula & Nila

Maharashtra

150

1997

Koyna IV

Koyna

Maharashtra

1000

1999-2000

Upper Sileru

Sileru

Andhra Pradesh

240

1967-95

Lower Sileru

Sileru

Andhra Pradesh

460

1976-78

Nagarjunsagar

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

815

1978-85

Srisailam

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

770

1982-87

Nagarjunsagar RC

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

91

1983-90

Nagarjunsagar CH

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

61

1992

Srisailam LB

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

900

2001-03

Mahatma Gandhi (Jog Falls)

Sharavathy

Karnataka

120

1947-52

Sharavathy

Sharavathy

Karnataka

891

1964-77

Sharavathy TR

Sharavathy

Karnataka

240

2001-02

Linganamakki

Sharavathy

Karnataka

55

1979-80

Kalinadi

Kalinadi

Karnataka

810

1979-84

Supa

Kalinadi

Karnataka

100

1985

Varahi

Varahi

Karnataka

230

1989-90

Kadra

Kalinadi

Karnataka

150

1997-99

Kodasalli

Kalinadi

Karnataka

120

1998-99

Pykara Singara

Pykara & Mukuthy

Tamil Nadu

70

1932-54

Periyar

Periyar

Tamil Nadu

140

1958-65

Kundah I

Avalanche & Emerald

Tamil Nadu

60

1960-64

Kundah II

Kundah

Tamil Nadu

175

1960-64

Kundah III

Pegumbahallah & Nirallapallam

Tamil Nadu

180

1965-78

Kundah IV

Bhavani

Tamil Nadu

100

1966-78

Mettur Tunnel

Cauvery

Tamil Nadu

200

1965-66

Aliyar

Aliyar

Tamil Nadu

60

1970

Kodayar I

Kodayar

Tamil Nadu

60

1970

Sholayar I

Sholayar

Tamil Nadu

70

1971

Kadamparai

Kadamparai

Tamil Nadu

400

1987-88

Lower Mettur I/ II/ III/ IV

Cauvery

Tamil Nadu

120

1988-89

Sholayar

Sholayar

Kerala

54

1966-68

Sabarigiri

Pamba & Kakki

Kerala

300

1966-67

Kuttiyadi

Kuttiyadi

Kerala

75

1972

Idukki

Periyar & Killivally

Kerala

780

1976-86

Idamalayar

Idamalayar

Kerala

75

1987

Lower Periyar

Periyar

Kerala

180

1997

Kakkad

Moozhiyar Veluthode

Kerala

50

1999

Panchet Hill

Damodar

Bihar

80

1959-91

Subarnarekha I & II

Subarnarekha

Jharkhand

130

1977-80

Machkund

Machkund

Orissa

120

1955-59

Hirakud PH I

Mahanadi

Orissa

236

1956-90

Hirakud II

Mahanadi

Orissa

72

1962-64

Balimela

Sileru

Orissa

360

1973-77

Rengali

Brahmni

Orissa

250

1985-92

Upper Kolab

Kolab

Orissa

320

1988-93

Upper Indravati

Indravati

Orissa

600

1998-2000

Maithon

Barakar

West Bengal

60

1957-58

Rammam II

Rammam

West Bengal

51

1995-96

Teesta canal I/II/III

Mahananda

West Bengal

67

1997-99

Rangit III

Greater Rangit

Sikkim

60

2000

Khandong

Kopili

Sikkim

50

1984

Kopili

Umrong nallah

Assam

200

1998-97

Umiam III

Umiam

Meghalaya

60

1979

Umiam IV

Umtru

Meghalaya

60

1992

Ranganadi

Ranganadi

Arunachal Pradesh

405

2002

Doyang

Doyang

Nagaland

75

2000-01

Loktak

Loktak

Manipur

105

1983

Pykara Ult.

Moyar

Tamil Nadu

150

2003-04

Chamera II

Ravi

Himachal Pradesh

300

2004-05

Tehri I

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal

1000

2005-06

Dhauliganga

Dhauliganga

Uttaranchal

280

2005-06

Almati

Krishna

Karnataka

290

2004-06

Bhavani Barrage I/ II/ III

Bhavani/Cauveri

Tamil Nadu

90

2004-05

 

 Hydropower Stations Under Construction (IC range – 50 MW and Above)

Name of Station

Name of River

State

IC (MW)

Commissioning Target

Dulhasti

Chenab

Jammu & Kashmir

390

2006-07

Sewa II

Sewa Ravi

Jammu & Kashmir

120

2006-07

Baglihar

Chenab

Jammu & Kashmir

450

2006-07

Sawalkot

Chenab

Jammu & Kashmir

600

NA

Larji

Beas

Himachal Pradesh

126

2006-07

Dhamai Sunda

Pabar

Himachal Pradesh

70

2006-07

Rampur

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

400

2006-07

Keshang I

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

66

2006-07

Koldam

Sutlej

Himachal Pradesh

800

2008-09

Parbati II

Parbati/Beas

Himachal Pradesh

800

2009-10

Uhi III

Uhi/Beas

Himachal Pradesh

100

NA

Allian Duhangan

NA

Himachal Pradesh

192

2008-09

Shapurkandi I/II/III

 

Punjab

168

2006-07

Tehri II (PS)

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal

1000

2006-07

Koteshwar

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal

400

2005-06

Maneri Bhali II

Bhagirathi

Uttaranchal

304

2005-06

Lakhvar Vyasi I/II

Yamuna

Uttaranchal

420

2007-12

Vishnu Prayag

Alaknanda

Uttaranchal

400

2006-07

Srinagar

Alaknanda

Uttaranchal

330

2007-08

Indira Sagar

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

1000

2014

Omkareshwar

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

520

2006-07

Maheshwar

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

400

2012

Sardar Sarovar

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

1200

2006-07

Sardar Sarovar Canal Head

Narmada

Madhya Pradesh

250

2003-07

Ghatgar (PS)

Pravara

Maharashtra

250

2004-07

Priyadarshini Jurala

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

235

2006-08

Kutiadi Augm

Kutiadi

Kerala

100

2006-07

Balimela

Sileru Balimela

Orissa

210

2005-08

Purulia PS

Kishtobazar nallah

West Bengal

900

2006-07

Teesta L Dam III

Teesta

West Bengal

132

2006-07

Teesta L Dam IV

Teesta

West Bengal

168

2006-07

Teesta V

Teesta

Sikkim

510

2006-07

Karbi Langpi

Borpani

Assam

100

2006-07

Myntdu

Myntdu

Meghalaya

84

2006-07

Loktak d/s

Loktak

Manipur

90

2008-09

Tuirial

Tuirial

Mizoram

60

2006-07

Bairabi

Dhaleshwari

Mizoram

80

2006-07